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History 2413 Final Exam.docx

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History 1401E
Julia Berest

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History 2413 (Berest): 2012 Final Exam Rough Notes Part I. 1. Is it true to argue that 19 century modernity in Western Europe had been a civilizing force? Discuss ways in which leisure, recreation and public consciousness had changed by the turn of the century. 2. Discuss the impact of nationalist ideology on European modernity. (See Lecture 12 Slides)  “Nationalism is an ideological movement for attaining and maintaining the autonomy, unity and identity of an existing or potential nation. Nationalism often predates nation, even if it pretends that the nation exists.” p. 108  Paradoxes of modern nationalism:“There is something terrible in the sacred love of the fatherland. This love is so exclusive that it sacrifices everything to the public interest; without pity, without fear, with no respect to human individual.” (quoted from Perry, 234)  French revolution and Napoleonic invasions: raised expectations and sense of national distinctiveness  Nationalist: creates sense of belonging for all, seen as a new religion, unity, a sense of excitement (created by the media), sense of a common mission among all classes 3. Discuss the paradoxical consequences of World War I.  First days of war: people were excited, enthusiastic, caught up in emotions of a crowd (glorification of war, propaganda, nationalism &imperialism etc)  Immediate causes: Slavic nationalism and the Balkan crisis  Trench warfare: mass casualties, death, injury, PST etc  Arms Race (Zero Sum Game)- increasing scientific advances, but they were very harmful: use of poison gases (chlorine, mustard gas)  1917- mass food shortages, growing discontent towards war  Extreme debt  Extensive damage to infrastructure ( e.g. 1/3 french farmland was now wasteland, over 1million buildings and 6,000 bridges lost)  Need to retool factories for regular/-non-military production  Paradoxes of welfare liberalism: restrictions on individual freedoms during and after the war  However, war had a liberating impact on women: increased employment opportunities, the right to vote 1918,  Psychological impacts of the war: the age of cultural pessimism (Spengler), escapism  Paradoxical nature of the Great War: changes instead of status quo  Overall effect of war: validating & reinforcing modernist ideas/practices - Women’s emancipation, welfare capitalism, democratization of society & culture4. Why did the Soviet Union collapse? Discuss the long-term and the immediate causes of the collapse. Is it true to argue that Soviet modernity had been doomed for failure? * See lecture slides “Perestroika & Collapse of the Soviet Union*  Contributing policies: Perestroika “reconstricton”-> glasnost (openness), greater freedoms of speech and press  Deepening economic reforms in the 1980s, towards a socialist market and mixed economy  Relaxed government control  Years of focus on military strengthening left the economy in a state of stagnation  Leader (Gorbachev): instituted greater political and social freedoms, created open atmosphere of criticism against communist regime  Collapsed in 1991  History 2413 Final Exam- Identification Questions Sputnik:  First artificial satellite put into earth’s orbit (Soviet Union 1957)  Ignited the US-USSR“Space Race”, increased political, military, scientific and technological developments- a larger part of the cold war (the American’s rival had gained ground)  Spurred US to work on technology in order to regain the lead  Unnerving reactions from US civilians- feared that this meant Soviets had the ability to launch ballistic missiles carrying nuclear weaponry from Europe to America (mirrors modern issues of nuclear warfare: N. Korea, middle east etc.) Vladimir Putin:  Second president of the Russian Federation (also the current president)  Overseen return of political stability and economic success in Russia (ending the crisis of the 1990s)  Restored bureaucratic order The Berlin Wall (Symbol of the cold war)  After world war two, the allied powers divided conquered Germany into 4 zones, same was done with the capital of Berlin  Relationship between Soviets and other allied powers disingrated, occupation of Germany became competitive and aggressive  West (US,Britain, France) versus east(Soviet Union), democracy versus communism  West flourished while East was exploited economically  Many people wanted to leave the east, which meant a decline in the labour force, built a wall to keep citizens in  Wall constructed by German Democratic Republic which completely cut off West Berlin from the rest of Germany (1961 construction began)  Claim that the wall was to protect East Germany from fascists (claimed that western Germany had not been fully de-Nazified)  West Germans condemned the wall which impacted their freedom of movement- prevented emigration  “wall of shame” “iron curtain”  1989 political changes: erosion of pro-soviet governments, civil unrest, government allowed east germans to cross the wall  1990: conclusion of official German reunification , communism collapsed and cold war ended  Perry, Sources : Roland Doregeles, Paris: That Fabulous day; Stefan Zweig, Vienna, The Rushing Feeling of Fraternity; Philipp Scheidemann, Berlin, the Hour We Yearned For Gustave le Bon (DOD 1931)  Founded theories of national traits, racial superiority, herd behavior and crowd psychology  Wrote book called Evolution of Matter: all matter is inherently unstable  Made theories of the unconscious popular  Proposed that within a crowd, an individual loses his critical capacities and behaves in a primitive and barbaric manner and is influenced by
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