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Test #1 Review.docx

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Western University
History 1601E
Cary Takagaki

Midterm ReviewOracle Bonespg 13 15 19 It shows that the Shang king also acted as the high priest who is best qualified to perform sacrifices to the royal ancestors and the high god Di The king also made offerings to an array of nature gods spirits of the sun moon Yellow River winds The King recognized his ancestors wishes and responses by interpreting the cracks made on heated cattle or turtle bones Eg King Wu Ding had his diviner ask the high god Di or his ancestors about rain the harvest military expeditions dreams sacrifices and even a toothache When the king was not correct about the interpretation he could just say he did not get it wrongbut he also did not get it right Important because it tells us history Eg we know that from oracle bone texts the captives not needed as slaves often ended up as sacrificial victims Also it tells us that writing was already a major element in Chinese culture by 1200 BCEThe Mandate of Heavenpg 147 229 274 1617 182 274 Zhou kings sacrificed to their ancestors but they also sacrificed to the divine force called Sky or Heaven The Book of Documents assumes a close relationship between Heaven and the king who was called the Son of heavenHeaven gives the king a mandate to rule only as long as he rules in the interests of the people Theory the Mandate of Heaven does not seem to have had any place in Shang cosmology It was elaborated by the early Zhou rulers as propaganda to win over the conquered subjects of the Shang Promoted the ideal of political unity for all under Heaven and legitimated many subsequent changes If a king did not rule in the interests of the people Heaven could take away the kings mandate and confer it on a worthier personConfucius A Chinese philosopher who influenced the world His sayings are recorded by his disciples in the AnalectsThe thrust of his thought was ethical rather than theoretical or metaphysical He talked repeatedly of an ideal age in the early ZhouBelieved that each individual must focus on fulfilling their roles rulers and depended and parents and children husbands and wives friends and friends Saw much of value in family ties filial piety Promotes the importance of obedience of children towards their parents and performance of the expected rituals for the dead Eg if your father steals something it is your duty to protect your father and not speak a word of the crimeEmphasized the idea of becoming true gentlemen which is son of a lord Should advise his ruler on the best way to governUltimate virtue was ren humanity perfect goodness benevolence Saw significance in keeping peace hence war was discouraged Also encouraged education not just academically but creatively arts He stated that the only way for the superior to civilize people and establish good society is through educationHe did not touch upon supernatural beingsif you are not able to serve men how are you able to serve spiritual beings Focused on studying the past instead of creating new ideasThe First Emperor Qin Shin HaungKing ChengZheng King of the state of Qin during the Warring States Period Decided that the title king was not grand enough so called himself the First Emperor He initiated a sweeping program of centralizationTo administer the territory that had been seized he dispatched officials whom he controlled through a mass of regulations reporting requirements and penalties for inadequate performanceTo make the administering all regions easier writing systems were standardized as were weights measures coinage and even the axle lengths of carts He shared the Legalist suspicion of intellectual diversityLi Si complained that scholars used records of the past to denigrate the emperors achievements and undermine popular support the emperor ordered the collection and burning of all useless writings The only were remained were topics on agriculture medicine and divinationThe Silk Road A series of trade and cultural transmission route that connected regions of Asian continent West and East by linking merchants pilgrims soldiers nomads dwellers from China Gets its name from the Chinese silk trade carried out during the Han Dynasty Although product in constant demand outside China was silk through Silk Road they learned new foodstuffs like walnuts pomegranates and sesameLargely carried by Bactrian camel with a heavy coats of hair to withstand the bitter cold of winter they could carry about 500 of cargo Buddhism benefited from the dedication of missionaries who travelled along the Silk RoadLegalism Over the course of the fourth and third centuries Emphasized the need for rigorous laws argued that strong government depended not on the moral qualities of the ruler and his officials but on establishing effective laws and procedures Qin under the chancellor Lord Shang adopted many Legalist policiesSocial distinctions were based on military ranks determined by the objective criterion of the number of enemy heads cut off in battle
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