History 1810E:thars that Changed the World – WINTER EXAM STUDY NOTES
December 11 2:005:00pm @ Elborn College rm 2168 A/B
o Higden World, 1350 – middle is Jerusalem
o Catalan Atlas, 1375 – Europe’s shape is relatively realistic but rest of world is not; red line at the bottom is the Red
o Ptolomeic World, 1414 – further south you go, the hotter it got.
o Catalan Estense, 14501460 – Path of Africa to Indian Ocean is getting thicker as they explore
o Roman Empire controlled the North (but was comprised of over 300 groups that fought each other constantly)
o Muslim control then pushed through into Northern Africa and Europe
o Pushing them out = “reconquista”
o Crusades = desire for the continent to be as Christian as it could be
o Portugal – King Henry the Navigator
o Captured Ceuta to show Castile and Aragon that Portugal was also powerful, though only having a
population of 1 million. They then made their way down and through Africa.
o 1455 – Nicholas V’s papal bull Romanus Pontiflex gave Portugal a monopoly of all further conquests to
o 1456 – Pope Calixtus III’s papal bull Inter Caetera gave Portugal the rights to run the church and state in
the regions they take over and not to sell Muslims any weapons
o 1493 – Pope Alexander VI’s papal bull Inter Caetera said that everything on the East is Portugal’s and
everything on the West is Spain’s.
in going different directions, wouldn’t they evidently cross paths on the other side of the world?
o Development in weapons – the Military Revolution
th th th
o 12 13 14 centuries = knights
o mid 14 century = archers
o 16 century onwards = guns
o appointed by King John II of Portugal and given 3 fleets
o instructed to sail around the Southern tip of Africa to find a trade route to India and also search for the lands ruled
by Prester John
o founded the Cape of Good Hope (he originally named it the Cape of Storms)
o realized that they could trade directly with India and other parts of Asia, bypassing the overland route through the
Middle East and its expensive middlemen
o also realized that the Indian Ocean is not landlocked – there is actually a body of water there Columbus, 1492:
o wanted to sail West instead of East because he believed the world was round and smaller than people thought
o he got to the Caribbean when he thought he was in Japan.
Vasco Da Gama, 1497:
o crew of 170180 men with 3 fleets and 1 supply fleet
o sailed from Cape Verde to Mossel Bay (South African tip), then to Mozambique, Mombasa and Malindi (East
African Coast), then to Calicut and Goa (Southern Indian tip)
o welcomed at Mombasa and found distrust in Calicut
o not considered a successful trip because they did not find Prester John, half of the crew died, and they developed
negative relations with the people they met
Pedro Alvarez Cabral, 1500:
o 13 ships in fleet with 1300 men
o followed the route of Da Gama
o built a factory in Calicut but tension grew with the Muslims; this factory was burned
o moved to Cochin and there, they traded
o not considered a successful trip because they did not find Prester John, half of the crew died, and two third of the
Vasco Da Gama, 1502:
o 20 ships in fleet armed with artillery (cannons and hand guns)
o went to Mozambique and traded for cheap fabrics
o established the Cartaz – safe conduct that the Portuguese will hand out to ships promising they will not attack as
long as they paid the price for the conduct. Most were willing to pay because fleets knew they could not last
against the Portuguese.
o Captured a Muslim fleet on the way to Calicut and ordered all of the people onboard to be killed
o Attacked and plundered Calicut in revenge for the burning of Cabral’s factory, and bombed it again on his way
o Came back with 1500 tons of ginger from Cananor and made massive profits. Violence paid.
Francisco D’Almeida, 1505
o King’s representative in India – first viceroy of the Estado da India (colonial state in India for the Portuguese
o Planned to cut off trade routes along Arabia and Persia but faced many challenges/opponents
o 1506 – captured Socotra
o 1506 – tried to capture Aden but failed first time; succeeded in 1513
o 1506 – tried to capture Hormuz but failed first time; succeeded in 1508
o 1508 – battle for Chaul but Egyptians won
o 1509 – stormed into Diu and destroyed an entire Egyptian fleet
o focused on securing and controlling trade routes, which failed to secure their monopoly due to mobility of traders
Alfonso d’Albuquerque o 1509 – second viceroy of Estado da India
o prioritized land bases (because he didn’t think it was just about trade routes)
o attacked Goa in 1510 and held onto it for centuries – this was key trading port for Portuguese in this area
o planned to expand to control Malacca because they thought this was the focus for Asian trade
o 1510 – sends Diego Lopes to seize Malacca but he failed so in 1511, Albuquerque went there himself to after many
peaceful and hostile attempts, in taking the city head on, he finally gained control of it and built a fortress.
o 1515 – Albuquerque claimed Hormuz
o religion was important because it created for a secular society based on common ideologies and created answers
for the great questions of the world (i.e. afterlife)
o catastrophic change to the Christian church
o Avignon, 13041378 – Pope fled to France with no intention to return, causing a scandal.
o Schism, 13781417 – another pope was elected in Rome, causing a unified body with two heads and each pope
believing they themselves were the rightful Pope. Another was then elected.
o Council of Constance, 14141418 – every religious leader gathered in Constance, expelled the 3 popes, and elected
a brand new one. Rome in ruins and had to be rebuilt.
o Black Death/Bubonic Plague, 13471350 – seen as a curse from God because of the problems in the church, 1/3 of
o Calvin (Calvinists) – developed idea of predestination (God has already determined who is going to Heaven and
who is going to Hell) and Iconoclasm (people worship the idols on the walls) therefore all churches were made
blank, meant for the literate.
o Catholic reform – Council of Trent from 15451563 dealt with the various doctrinal, institutional and
administrational problems of the church and reformed existing religious orders.
o Jesuits – founded by Ignatius Loyola, took an oath of obedience to the pope and became a missionary order
devoted to the proposition of Jesus
o Francis Xavier – 1540, went to India to minister to the Portuguese and local population and in 1549, went
o Impacts: division of the “seamless garden” in church and preaching styles as well as rulers had to decide what
religion to follow and thus, what their peoples had to follow.
1609 – Dutch Republic is formed (majority of people were Calvinists) and their identity was based on their opposition to the
Spanish (by end of 16 century, the two countries hated each other)
o Every ship navigator was hired by the Crown and were paid salaries.
o Profit of plundering was regulated – portion can be kept by captain but portion was to be given back to the Crown
o Adaptability – they take what they can and work with what they’re given
o Goa was a port – Portugal spent time and money building this
o Sofala, Kilwa and Hormuz were puppet states – local power in place with Portugal overseeing
o Malacca – got rid of local ruler but maintained political structure
o No defined boundaries for politics, religion, marriage, and culture.
o By 1540, it was no longer profitable. o Portugal too far West to trade efficiently with Europe
o Ongoing costs too high
o Credit problems – European markets wanted hard cash but Portugal was running out
o Venetian and other empires
o 1549 – closed their factory in Antwerp
o did not want to pursue entrenchment because it made them look weak, cut of trade, and abandoned
communities. They decided to press forward.
o But it was considered worth it.
o Made heavy profits for first half of 16 century
o Outlet of energy – explorers and traders were not “common” citizens
o Raised the image of Portugal in Europe
1550s – Turks defeated so they controlled Persian Gulf more easily
Macao – mercantile, controlled and selfgoverned settlement; economically independent and
efficient, trading for Chinese silk (Portuguese stayed until 1999)
o They realized there was money to be made in the East and wanted to spread religion and its power
o England – Queen Elizabeth supported privateering and Sir Francis Drake was one (aka licensed pirate)
and he circumnavigated the globe. He was the first Englishman to reach the Spice Islands and reached a
deal with the Sultan of Ternate and he then expelled the Portuguese from this island.
o Dutch Republic – had a heavy commercial base and growth of Amsterdam; developed a new ship for
trading called the Fluit ship. Heavily influenced by Van Linschoten.
Dutch & English differences from the Portuguese:
o Both did not rely on state investment in expeditions
o Both realized that pepper was no longer promising and thus turned to nutmeg and cloves – finer spices
o English East India Company (EIC)
o Formed 1600 with 200 members
o Joint stock company – private investors funded expeditions with connections to the monarchy
o Political and military institutions supported by the Crown – independent right to form and conclude
treaties and take military action
o Interest sparked by return of John Davis who told EIC that there were huge spice supplied in India and
o 1601 – Lancaster and his fleet of 4 ships brought up 4 million pounds of pepper from Sumatra and
captured a Portuguese textile ship in addition to building a factory/settlement in Java.
o Dutch VOC
o Formed in 1602
o Supported politically and militarily also by the government o More money and investors than the EIC and directed by a board of directors
o Representation from across the Republic which strengthened the identification of the state
o Wanted to control the islands and its production and consumption of trade.
1605 – force Ambon to grow nothing by cloves, which established a dependency system
population in Trenate and Tidore were not allowed to grow cloves (ultimately destroying the
o 1619 – Dutch and English combine to combat the growing presence of the Spanish but in 1623, they separate due
to growing tensions.
o Portuguese = Goa and Macao (lost power everywhere else)
o English = India and Persia
o Netherlands = Malacca
How this changed the world:
o 1800 – 35% of total land area of globe controlled by Europeans to 1914 – 84% of total land area of glove
o they defeated, controlled, exploited, and oppressed a significant portion of people
o They arrived at a time where there was a power vacuum in the Indian Ocean and took advantage of that:
o Small powers could not stand up to them
o Larger powers were land based and not interested in controlling the seas (i.e. Ming Dynasty in China);
saw no reason to adapt/adopt European weaponry to counter them.
o Medium powers that intended to defeat them could (i.e. Ya’rubi and Zhen family)
o First time Europeans went against the outside world
o Brought their method of war, causing an important change in way in which war is carried out
o Brought changes in printing press, reformation, and globalization
o Brought growth in consumption by drive to expand by Europeans – we now commonly use coffee, tea,
nutmeg, silk, cotton, potatoes, etc.
o Change in view of world:
o 14 century – map is unrecognizable and mysterious
o 18 century – development of coastlines created recognizable and almostaccurate map
o unified, connected, and dependent view of the world in that this war created links between places
o S: Jack Turner – Spice: the History of a Temptation
o Spice was a catalyst of discovery and was used for many things (seasoning to food to improve taste and
also to dispel demons, drive off illnesses and ward against pestilence). Most historically significant is
pepper, but as this trade developed, the focus was then shifted to clove, nutmeg, and mace, in addition to
o P: the Book of John Mandeville
o Comments on their colour, laziness due to the heat, their worship of idols and objects (especially oxen),
and highlights the animals in the area (snakes), cannibalism, and their interpretation of gender roles
(women are to be obedient and loyal to their husbands) o Very condescending and ethnocentric view on Indian people
o S: Glenn J. Ames – Age of European Discovery, 15001700
o Highlights the reasons for expansion for Portugal (and Europe) and ultimately the ways in which they
o Motivation for expansion: economic growth and desire for prosperity, desire to dominate geopolitically,
and desire for spread of religion
o Desire to know the world and map it out
o Caravels = long and skinny used for navigating and exploring, Naus = big used for transporting goods and
then they developed the Carracks = heavy and fortified used for defense and protection of fleet
o ProEuropean expansion point of view
o S: Robert S. Wolff – Da Gama’s Blundering: Trade Encounters in Africa and Asia During the European Age of
o Criticizes Portugal’s decisions and how those decisions ultimately led to their decline and failure
o Portugal’s desire to control the sea lanes = they established system of passes because of inefficiency in
naval blockades and fragility of European settlements on land + cartaz shows their military advantage but
inability to exert total control over the trade
o Portugal and Europe thought they were a lot stronger and successful that they actually were.
o P: Copy of a Letter of the King of Portugal Sent to the King of Castile Concerning the Voyage and Success of India
o Letter about his men made his men seem brave, courageous, and honourable – solidifies the fact that with
Portugal’s strength and limited size in demographics and economy, they were still able to make the best of
it and succeed
o P: Commentaries of the Great Afonso D’Albuquerque, second Viceroy of India
o King would read this back home and therefore, the author of this (minor of Albuquerque onboard in their
expedition) only wrote about the positions
o D’Albuquerque made to be strategic, religion, humble and admired by the Hindus. He was also forgiving
because of Timoja’s betrayal and then return. Goa was made to be powerful and abundant in resources
o S: A.R. Disney – the Portuguese in India and Other Studies, 15001700
o Vasco da Gama was a lot less violent than he was made out to be in other texts – his violence was
exaggerated, but understandable and justifiable. Violence paid off in their expeditions.
o Examines several accounts of his violence and compares them to one another to prove that the sources are
o Before the end of WWII, they were seen as heroes and afterwards, as villains. Disney tries to lessen the
criticisms against Portugal and da Gama.
o This focus on Portugal neglects the views and accounts of locals – what would the diary of the King of
Calicut say about what da Gama did to the city when he plundered it?
o S: Malyn Newitt – a History of Portuguese Overseas Expansion, 14001668
o ProPortuguese view – the entire world “sat around” and Portugal took the initiative to expand and thus,
o P: St. Francis Xavier – letter from India, to the Society of Jesus at Rome, 1543
o Offers his insight in the ways he converted people (i.e. using children to pass the faith and made
Brahmans out to be cunning and sinful, using a few lies to cater to the people) o Xavier is the production of the tension from the reformation – this pushed him to sell Catholicism. He is
seen as important because the represents the Jesuit efforts and success, he was able to preach without
violence, and was a symbol of the reformation.
o ***Sidenote: When he died, the arm that he used to baptize so many people was cut off and toured around
Europe in support of the Catholic church.
o S: PoChia Hsia – the World of Catholic Renewal 15401770
o Antagonistic view on Christian missionaries – they were good accomplishments in the beginning but
ultimately proved to be failures. Shows the two sided view on missionaries – how the church viewed it
and how the local people viewed it.
o They created a social hierarchy in the Philippines – because they tied it to the economy, it stayed for
awhile. They were initially welcomed in Japan but then hostility arose and they were forced out slowly.
The missionaries, led by Matteo Ricci tried to assimilate into the Chinese culture and religion (Buddhism)
and converted through example, but clashes ultimately led to their exile.
o S: Joy Pachuau – the Spiritual Concerns of a Mercantilist Empire: ChurchState Relations in Sixteenth and
Seventeenth century Portuguese India
o Showed Portugal’s strengths and weaknesses in religious conversions due to their close connection with
o S: A.R. Disney – Twilight of the Pepper Empire: Portuguese Trade in Southwest India in the Early Seventeenth
o By the first half of the 16 century, the Portuguese were facing financial hardships hindering their success
due to many reasons. Despite this, the crown did not give up on their overseas establishments and tried to
provide them with as many resources as possible. Their trade tactics were no longer viable models due to
the Dutch and English now succeeding in wealth and power.