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History 2403E exam essay possibilities.docx

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Department
History
Course
History 2403E
Professor
Anne Skoczylas
Semester
Winter

Description
Essays • War o The Turks are always in the Mediterranean fighting, always somewhere on the flanks of Europe of 100+ years REASONS FOR WAR: o Just war theory o Theoretical justification for war: Human sin, divine punishment for evil, natural resistance to authority o External factors for war: honour and glory for kings, territory and defense rights and religion o Internal factors for war: Resistance to authority eg. duke of Parma a foreigner relieves Paris during Huguenot siege, aggressive nobles, revolts by peasants and other oppressed religious groups CHANGES o 16 century changes: naval technology and gunnery, up until now most consisted of ships manned by sailors with many soldiers on bored and would attach themselves to ships and fight th o by the mid 17 cent there was a development of massive ships, the lower down you can put the weapons the safer the ship o development of fortification: in Italy reforming the way they thought about defense, (thick walls) o Gunpowder  1320 in Europe generally  1420 started to make a difference in war  1453 Turkish bronze fun, used in siege at Constantinople (iron cannon instead of stone)  by 1630 there was a greater mobility o Continuous volley see ID Q o 17 cent organizational changes  standing armies (uniforms), supply trains (troops and need for horses and wagons), services for soldiers (training), led to increased taxation and expansions of power of state 30 year war: 4 phases of it: bohemian, Danish, Swedish and French with minor players such as Austria, Bavaria, Denmark, spain • Bohemian stage o 1618-20 o 1617: unrest o 1618: defenestration of prague o 1619 deposition of emperor Ferdinand, Frederick king of bohemia o 1620 Frederick is defeated at the battle of white mountain o Maximilion II of HRE and Bavaria given upper palatinate and title of elector • Danish Phase o Christian IV is the king, Manfeld is for the danes, Tilly and Wallenstien for HRE to answer to maximillion o 1629 Peace of Lubeck, Ferdinand issues edict of restitution o 1630: Diet of Regensburg esulted in a major loss of power for the Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand II • Swedish Phase o 1630: invasion of Gustavus Adoplhus and the SwedishArmy including an alliance with Richelieu who was a subsidy to the swedes o 1631: Treaty of Fonaineblue, fall of Magdeburg to Tilly o 1632: Bavaria is devastated, Battle of Lutzen where Gustavus adoplphus was killed allowing Wallenstine to withdraw his men after dark—making him a threat o where: edges of german empire, swedes in the north picking up Baltic territory, Bavaria tries to protect itself but French are after the land • French Phase o 1635: peace of Prague, HRE and Elector of Saxony, most German fighting is voer o 1635: Richelieu declared war on Spain and in the same year he died o 1643: Battle of Rocroi where there was a French Victory o 1640s: European Revolts, there was a need for peace of Westphalia where 200 states were involved, 1000s of negotiation diplomats, 2 towns in Germany are de- militarized to be the center of negotiation o 1648 Hapsburgs finally defeated • Consequences o Huge costs, not the way to go in the future o Lead to the idea of the supply train and supplying your own troops, but they couldn’t live off the land o Peace of Westphalia o Sovreignity to united provinces and Switzerland o Autonomy for German Princes o Giving back catholic land to church in 1624 o Equal protestant and catholic judges in imperial courts o Rights for Calvinists, similar to Lutherans o Depopulation and economic devestation in Germany o Loss of industry and commerce o Decline of cities o Loss of power by estates/diets, rise of princely absolutism o Stabilization of political boundaries o Balance of power Definitions • Arquebusiers: 500, handheld guns, they’re long, slow to clean, have to be loaded individually, awkward to fire, army made up of pikeman, they will be protected with time to fire (early 16 cent) Intellectual life, science, education • Pyrrhonism • Fideism: • Late 16 cent belief in Magic o New science, old alchemy (religion and magic intermingled) o Dr. John Dee(1527-1608) astrologer to Queen Elizabeth, hired to determine the best date for her coronation, he was an alchemist and mathmetician o Giordana Bruno (1548-1600 and burnt for heresy) philosopher, mathematician and astronomer. He was believed to be a magician so he was burned. Said nature and God are the same thing, and the church did not like this. Patron was annoyed because he would not reveal his magical secrets • Johannes Kepler • Sir Francis Bacon (1561-1626) lawyer
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