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History 2702 Final Exam Review.docx

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Western University
History 2705E
Adrian Ciani

History 2702 Final Exam Review Marshall Sahlins (The Death of Captain Cook)  Protested against Vietnam War in 1960s  Writers and Editors war tax protest- refuse tax payments in protest of the Vietnam war  Involved in student protests in france  Also discussed topics of cultural evolution- increase in complexity, organization and adaptiveness. No one culture is isolated- interaction & diffusion apparent in their qualities  Work focused on the power culture has to shape a person’s perceptions and actions  Debated the details of captain cooks death in the Hawaiian Islands (how to understand the rationality of the indigenous peoples)  When westerners write about non western societies, do they inevitably perpetuate myths of European imperialism?  Did the natives truly see Cook as their god, Lono? Or were they too realistic to accept the foreigner as their God? Can westerns truly understand how they felt without being hindered by our own world views?  Story where Cook is seen as a god perpetuate ethnocentrism Wealth of Nations (British Agriculture Revolution)  1776- Adam Smith  Reflection on the economics of the industrial revolution  Argues that free market economies are more productive and beneficial to their societies  Division of labour causes the greatest increase in production  Natural way of bartering between people on basis of specialization  Regulated by limits of the market  Price reflects toil and trouble of acquiring it  Invisible hand: self regulating nature of the marketplace, individual ambitions benefit society  Laissez faire: an environment in which transactions are free from state intervention (e.g. tariffs) 'White Man's Burden' (Rudyard Kipling)  Poem published in 1899 in McClure’s magazine (United States and Philippine Islands)  Subject of American imperialism/colonization in the Philippines recently won from the Spanish-American War  Concept of ruling other nations for the benefit of those living there  Theme of Eurocentric racism- white superiority and the duties that come with being “superior”  White people have the duty to encourage cultural development in other nations  Lifting non-westerners out of poverty and ignorance  Non-Westerners “half devil half child”  Relates to modern US occupation of Iraq Mahele (Hawaiian Act)  The Hawaiian land redistribution act proposed by King Kamehameha in the 1830s and enacted in 1848 (under pressure of foreign advisors)  Part of a series of modernizing social changes following the death of King K the Great (including drafting a constitution and bill of rights)  Allowed chiefs and commoners to claim private title to land  Also called for establishment of an arbitration committee to settle disputes  Desire to keep land ownership out of hands of foreigners  Changing attitudes towards land  Europeans saw the land as a commodity to be bought, sold and exploited  Mahele was a disaster for the Hawaiians, quickly led to ownership by foreigners  By the late 1800s, foreigners controlled 90% of Hawaii – they also wanted to control the government which ended up being overthrown  After the mahele, native planters who received commission were tied to only one piece of land  Signified the beginning of the plantation era  Contributing factors: capitalist intrusion, western imperialism, disease and depopulation  Missionaries argument: need to make the natives more industrious and moral (Christianize), by accepting Christianity and gaining land ownership. Disregard of Hawaiian system already in place  Self-serving agenda Queen Lilioukalani (US Foreign Policy)  Last monarch and only queen of the kingdom of Hawaii  1893 “Committee of Safety” formed by Euros and Americans to overthrow kingdom (Concern for safety and property of American citizens)  she felt a duty to preserve lands for native citizens  Memoir “Hawaii’s Story” 1898- Hawaiian sovereignty movement  Intermarriage resulted in reduced numbers of native Hawaiians and increased American influence/ control Maxim Gun  First self powered machine gun invented in 1884  “the weapon most associated with the British imperial conquest”  More efficient and less labour intensive  Required a team of men for operation  Had more of a psychological impact of scaring enemy then actual effectiveness in battle situations  WW1- improved versions of essentially the same gun  Mobile use- horse carriage mounted guns  Allowed for aggressive colonization and take over processes Pied Noirs  Term for French citizens who lived in French Algeria before independence  Reference to the Algerian war that opposed Algerian nationalist groups  Supported French colonial rule  Double alientation- homeland and adopted home  Jules Ferry  Promoter of colonial expansion of France
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