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EXAM NOTES History 1403 - Totalitarianism - DJ Norton.docx

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Western University
History 2145A/B
David Norton

Totalitarianism 1403E Final Exam Study Notes Question One: Identifications (Who? When? What? Where? And clearly state the historical significance (Why?) of each. 10 of these will appear on the exam, from which you will choose five to answer. Trotsky, Leon: Who: He was a Bolshevik revolutionary, and a Marxist theorist. What? He helped organize the 1917 October revolution along with Lenin. During the Soviet Union he was a People‘s Commissar for Foreign Affairs (Was responsible for negotiating diplomatic treaties, handling soviet foreign affairs, and leading the creation of Communism, and anti-imperialism) and later built up the red army. There is terror going on with Trotsky and Lenin nobody will speak up. Russia begun to steer away from a Marxist/Communistic government so Stalin came in and said, ―I can provide communism.‖ Lenin and Trotsky oppose Stalin. Begins to travel to speak out against Lenin, leads a failed struggle against Stalin‘s Left Opposition in the 20s. Stalin removed him from power because of his opposition, deported to a concentration camp where he still created problems by opposing Stalinist bureaucracy. Trotsky saw the bureaucracy and the managerial groups of the Soviet Union as the new privileged strata who had usurped the fruits of the revolution and deprived the working class of its rights; he attacked Stalinism as the ideology of the new privileged strata. Then sent to Turkey where he‘s still a political exile, and then to Sweden, then to Mexico, where he‘s a hostage but he‘s still promoting the death of Stalin in 1938-1939 an attack is made while he‘s in Mexico by Stalin‘s spies but it backfires and he still remains alive, only to be assassinated by one of Stalin‘s secret police using an ice pick (1940). His ideas form the basis of Trotskyism, which is a major school of Marxist thought that‘s opposed to the theories of Stalinism. One of the few Soviet Political leaders who was never rehabilitated by the government of Gorbachev. March on Rome When: 22 October to 29 October 1922 Where: Rome, Italy Who: Benito Mussolini‘s National Fascist Party What: Mussolini declared that he wants to rule Italy. The former prime minister advised the current Prime Minister Luigi Facta that Mussolini him to resign and was going to March on Rome, and also had the black shirts ready on standby all over the country. Facta thought that Mussolini would govern quietly to his side. Facta had resigned but still held power, but to arise to the occasion he wanted the King Victor Emanuel III to sign a military order declaring state of siege. He refused and handed power to Mussolini who was supported by the military, business class, and right wing. Why: This allowed Mussolini to reach power in accordance with the Italian Constitution. The March was a force behind the transfer of power within using the legality of the constitution. It was made possible by the surrender of public authorities in the face of fascist intimidation. Mussolini seemed free market and Laissez-faire that is why financial leaders wanted him, but he was very corporatist. President Hindenburg When: In power from 12 May 1925 to 2 August 1934. Succeeded by Adolf Hitler. Where: Germany Who: Paul von Hindenburg What: Enjoyed a long army career retiring in 1911. Germanys chief of staff from 1916, he and Erich Ludendorff rose in popularity since then, only to have him retire again in 1919, but return to be elected as President of Germany in 1925. Ran for re-election in 1932 because he was the only person who could beat Hitler. Why: He dissolved parliament TWICE in 1932 and appointed Hitler as Chancellor in Jan 1933. In February he issued the Reichstag Fire Decree, which suspended various civil liberties and was used as the legal basis of imprisonment of anyone considered to be opponent of the Nazis, and to suppress publications not considered ―friendly‖ to the Nazi cause. Considered by historians to be one of the key steps in establishing a one-party Nazi state in Germany. In March he signed the Enabling act, allowing the cabinet to make laws without the Reichstag. Hitler had administrative legislative powers. Hindenburg then died and Hitler declared the Presidents office vacant, and as chancellor made himself Head of State. Nuremberg Laws When: 1935 Where: Germany Who: Nazis What: After Hitler‘s takeover Nazism became an official ideology incorporating scientific racism and anti Semitism. Rapid growth in legislation directed at Jews. Why: Enacted laws to identify who was Jewish so little people could escape. The laws classified people with four German grandparents as ―German or Kindred Blood‖ while people classified as Jews if they descended from 3 or 4 Jewish grandparents. Someone with one or two was of mixed blood. Jews were deprived of German citizenship and prohibited marriage between Jews and other Germans. Also a ban on sexual intercourse between Jews and non-Jews was instilled. The laws were a legal embodiment of an already existing anti-Jewish boycotts movement. Potsdam Conference When: 16 July to 2 August 1945 Where: Cecilenhof, Potsdam, Occupied Germany Who: Soviet Union (Stalin), United Kingdom(Churchill), and United States (Truman) What: A conference between the 3 nations Why: To decide how to administer the punishment to the defeated Nazi Germany, which had agreed on unconditional surrender 9 weeks earlier May 9. (VE day). The goals of the conference included establishment of post-war order, peace treaties issues, and countering the effects of war. The conference is the beginning of the tension between USSR and US, as well as a forewarning to the Cold War. CHECK OUT THE WIKIPEDIA PAGE FOR MORE INFO. Weimar Republic When: 1919 Where: Germany Who: …. What: A parliamentary republic established to replace the imperial form of government. Why: The failure of the republic is contributed to economic problems, institutional problems, and specific individuals. In January 1919, a National Assembly was elected to draft a constitution. The government, composed of members from the assembly, came to be called the Weimar coalition and included the SPD; the German Democratic Party, a descendant of the Progressive Party of the prewar period; and the Center Party. The percentage of the vote gained by this coalition of parties in favor of the republic suggested broad popular support for the republic. In mid-1919 the assembly ratified the constitution of the new Weimar Republic. The constitution established a federal republic consisting of nineteen states. The republic's government was a mixed strong president and parliamentary system, with the president seen by many as a sort of substitute Kaiser. The president was elected by popular direct ballot to a seven-year term and could be reelected. He appointed the chancellor and, pursuant to the chancellor's nominations, also appointed the cabinet ministers. However, the cabinet had to reflect the party composition of the Reichstag and was also responsible to this body. Election to the Reichstag was by secret ballot and popular vote. Suffrage was universal. Thus, Germany had a truly democratic parliamentary system. However, the president had the right to dismiss the cabinet, dissolve the Reichstag, and veto legislation. The legislative powers of the Reichstag were further weakened by the provision for presidential recourse to popular plebiscite. Article 48, the so-called emergency clause, accorded the president the right to allow the cabinet to govern without the consent of parliament whenever it was deemed essential to maintaining public order. In its 14 years, the Weimar Republic was faced with numerous problems, including hyperinflation, political extremists on the left and the right and their paramilitaries, and hostility from the victors of World War I. However, it overcame many of the oppressive requirements of the treaty of Versailles, the currency and unified tax politics and the railway system. Gulag When: 1930-1960 Where: Russia Who: Government What: Government agency that administered the main Soviet Forced Labour Camp systems. All the way from convicts to petty criminals, to political prisoners were essentially worked to death. No death camps, yes the mortality rate was high, but they weren‘t intended to kill people. 53 camps, 423 labor colonies. With Burning Sorrow When: March 1937 Who: by the Pope, What: Document issued in 1937 has statements about Hitler replacing God with a weird impersonal fate. Hitler must not replace faith in God with faith in himself. Hitler is a heretic who is destroying true faith. Why: Raises question of how strong is totalitarianism reaching. Disapproved of the Reichskonkordat (concordat) guaranteeing the rights of the Catholic Church in Germany signed between the Holy See and Germany. Nuremberg Trials The Nuremberg Trials are a set of internationally recognized military tribunals held by the Allied Forces of World War Two, which took place in Nuremberg, Germany, from November 1945 to October 1946. At the primary trials of the major war criminals, which will be the focus of this essay, twenty-two of some of the most prominent members of Nazi Germany were prosecuted before the International Military Tribunal (IMT). Although the most prominent members of Nazi German society, and the masterminds behind the war; Adolf Hitler, Joseph Goebbels and Heinrich Himmler, could not be prosecuted due to their committing of suicide before the trials had begun. Great Britain, the United States of America, the Soviet Union, and France instituted the International Military Tribunal, which would be responsible for dealing with, for a first occurrence in history, international war crimes. Till this day the Trials at Nuremberg are still being strongly debated. Some of the biggest aspects of the debate surrounding the Nuremberg Trials concern legal, political, and jurisprudential issues. Legally many argue that the trials violated the principles of nullen crimen sine lege, nullem poena sine lege, and the rule of ex post facto laws, as well as being legally flawed, they were a form of ‗victor‘s justice‘, which ultimately made the trials unwholesome but necessary. Some argue that the trials were merely political, created to set down certain lines of conduct in international affairs, and to outline the acceptable treatment of one population by it‘s own government. The defenders of the Nuremberg trials argue that it was a fair and just proceeding due to the large amounts of legal rights and allowances given to the defendants, as well as the fact that all trials were open, thus creating fairness and justice. Furthermore others state that the Nuremberg Trials were created as a didactic legality to reinforce order in a dismantled world because the law could not provide a definitive answer for how to deliver justice to such atrocities as those committed during World War Two. Regardless of whether the Trials at Nuremberg are being criticized or defended, whether or not the trails were legal they have left a long-standing legacy that has initiated many international movements and provided a sound reminder of the atrocities that mankind can commit. Whether one is arguing the legality, the historical or political impact of the trials the verdict of history is yet to be decided, as we cannot tell whether or not the impact of Nuremberg will be positive or negative in the years to come. Warsaw Pact When: 1955-91 Where: Eastern Europe Who: 8 communist states. Albania, Bulgaria, Czech, Germany, Hungary, Poland, Romania, and Soviet Union. What: It‘s a military alliance created in response to Germany‘s integration in 1955 with the NATO pact. Its motivated by a desire to prevent, at all costs, the recurrence of an invasion of Russian soil as had occurred under Napolean in 1812 and Hitler in 1941 – 44 leading to extreme devastation and losses in both cases. ESPECIALLY the second. Socialism always has to prevail. Kulaks When: 11900s Where: Soviet, Russia Who: Refers to a set of peasants in the later Russian Empire. ORIGINALLY referred to wealthy independent farmers in the Russian Empire who emerged suddenly from peasantry. The Kulaks were class enemies of the poorer peasants, there would be a revolution that would render them at the same level as the proletariat. What: Soviet campaign of political repressions including arrests, deportations, and executions of millions of the better-off peasants and their families in 1929- 1932. The richer peasants were labeled kulaks and considered class enemies. More than 1.8 million peasants were deported in 1930-1931.The stated purpose of the campaign was to fight the counter-revolution and build socialism in the countryside. This policy was accomplished simultaneously with collectivization in the USSR and effectively brought all agriculture and peasants in the Soviet Russia under state control. The "liquidation of the kulaks as a class" was announced by Stalin on 27 December 1929. 1929 Papal Concordat When: 1929 Where: Italy Who: Church term for preventing future discord/looking ahead to create harmony - a proactive document. Agreement between head of state & government Pope resides in Italy. Agrees that church can do whatever it wants to do (run schools, select clergy etc). Pope officially says that Mussolini is the leader of Italy – there still is a king however. In return, Mussolini says he won‘t interfere with pope in Vatican city Reichstag Fire When: 27 Feb 1933 Where: Berlin, Germany Who: Marinus van der Lubbe What: Fire of the Reichstag building Why: A Dutch council communist was found on site. This served as evidence for Nazis that the Communists were beginning to plot against them. Hitler urged Hindenburg to pass an emergency decree, which he did. And mass arrests of communists were made. Including parliamentary delegates. With them gone and their seats empty the Nazi‘s went from a plurality party to a majority, subsequent elections confirmed this and allowed Hitler to consolidate his power. Kristallnacht (Night of Broken glass) When: Nov 9 to 10, 1938. Where: Nazi Germany and parts of Austria Who: SA storm troopers and civilians What: They destroyed and ransacked Jewish homes, shops, towns, and villages. A quarter of all Jewish men were taken to concentration camps all over Germany. Synagogues were ransacked, and 100s set on fire. Why: Sent shock waves all around the world. It is marked as the beginning of the Final Solution, and the holocaust. Komsomol When: 1918 Where: Soviet Union Who: Youth Division of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union What: 15 – 33 year olds paramilitary. Cultural events, Stalin just wants them to be educated. It‘s a voluntary organization. The idea is that eventually they will join the communist party. Mechanism for teaching values of the CPSU to youngsters. Served as a mobile pool of labor and political activism. Active members received incentives, and privileges etc etc. Rosta Windows When: 1918-1935 Where: Russia Who: Russian Telegraph Agency Why: Satirical Rosta were stencil-replicated propaganda posters created by artists and poets within the Rosta system, under the supervision of the Chief Committee of Political Education during. The main topics were current political events. They were usually displayed in windows, hence the name. The design featured graphical simplicity suitable for viewing from distance and often used lukbo-styled sequences of pictures according to some plot, similar to modern comics.The posters were not printed but rather painted with cutout stencils made from cardboard. Once the required number of posters was painted, the stencils were sent to another city and put in circulation throughout the Soviet Union. CHECKA When: Created by a decree issues on Dec 20, 1917 Where: Russia Who: Lenin What: a soviet state security organization. Why: Important Military and security arm of the Bolshevik communist government. They policed labor camps, ran the gulag system, conducted requisitions of food, subjected political opponents to torture and summary execution, and put down rebellions, riots by workers, and mutinies in the desertion plagued Red Army. They were pretty much the terror of totalitarianism during Lenins reign. Bishop Galen When: July 1941 Where: Russia Who: Was a bishop in the town of Monsture What: Why: Gestapo came in and rounded up people from the town à there is too much German pride in the town- they take clergy off to camp & destroy town. Bishop Galen writes a letter soon after the event, saying ―the Gestapo is our enemy, we must be hard and immovable against the Nazi regime‖. Hitler hears about this letter & burns down the churches, arrests people who have the letter - but does not touch bishop Galen. Galen writes again against Hitler‘s euthanasia‘s policy – attacking Hitler on another letter à letter spreads, even to France and Britain & USA. Nothing is done to Bishop Galen – he eventually becomes a Cardinal à no evident reason for keeping him around – Hitler may not have wanted to offend the Pope Gasperi When: December 10, 1945 – August 17, 1953 Where: Italy Who: Founder of the Christian Democratic Party From 1945 to 1953 he was the prime minister of eight successive coalition governments. His eight-year rule remains a landmark of political longevity for a leader in modern Italian politics. A conservative Catholic, he was one of the Founding fathers of the European Union. Brezhnev When: 1906 to 1982 Presiding over the country from 1964 until his death in 1982. His eighteen-year term as General Secretary was one of the lengthiest, second only to that of Stalin, During Brezhnev's rule, the global influence of the Soviet Union grew dramatically, in part because of the expansion of the Soviet military during this time, but his tenure as leader has often been criticized for marking the beginning of a period of economic stagnation overlooking serious economic problems which eventually led to the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991. As a leader, Brezhnev was a team player, and took care to consult his colleagues before acting, but his attempt to govern without meaningful economic reforms led to a national decline by the mid- 1970s, a period often referred to as the era of stagnation. A significant increase in military expenditures which by the time of Brezhnev's death stood at approximately 15 percent of the country's GNP, and an increasingly elderly and ineffective leadership set the stage for a dwindling GNP compared to Western nations. While at the helm of the USSR, Brezhnev pushed for détente between the Eastern and Western countries. His last major decision in power was to send to a soviet military in afghanistan in an attempt to save the fragile regime which fought a war against religious extremists. Born of a Need for Action When: 1932 Where: Soviet Russia Who: Mussolini What: The Doctrine of Fascism Why: ―Fascism was not given out to the wet nurse of a doctrine elaborated beforehand round a table: it was born of the need for action; it was not a party, but in its first two years it was a movement against all parties. The name, which I gave to the organization, defined its characteristics. Nevertheless, whoever rereads, in the now crumpled pages of the time, the account of the constituent assembly of the Fasci Italiani di Combattimento will not find a doctrine, but a series of suggestions, of anticipations, of admonitions, which when freed from the inevitable vein of contingency, were destined later, after a few years, to develop into a series of doctrinal attitudes which made of Fascism a self-sufficient political doctrine able to face all others, both past and present.‖ Munich Beer Hall Putsch When: 8 November 1923 Where: Munuch, Bavaria and Germany Who: Hitler, Erich Ludendorff What: On 8th November with the support of other Socialist groups, and former World War One General Ludendorff, Hitler ordered 600 of his Stormtroopers under the command of Herman Goering to surround a Beer Hall in Munich where Conservative politician Gustav von Kahr was making a speech to 3,000 people. Also present were the local army commander, Lossow and the Bavarian police chief, Seisser. At about 8.30pm Hitler entered the hall, stood on a chair and fired a pistol shot into the ceiling. He announced to the crowd that the revolution had begun then ordered von Kahr, Lossow and Seisser into an adjoining room. After about ten minutes the group returned to the hall and Hitler announced that he had the support of all three men. When the meeting ended, Hitler immediately began planning his takeover of Munich. Von Kahr, Lossow and Seisser went straight to the authorities.The next morning Hitler and 3,000 Nazi supporters began a march on Munich they encountered a road block manned by 100 armed police. Shots were fired killing sixteen Nazis and four police officers. Both Hitler and Goering were injured and ran to take cover. Other Nazis also ran. Ludendorff however continued to march on, he later branded Hitler a coward and refused to have anything more to do with him. Hitler was arrested on 12th November and charged with treason. He was found guilty at his trial in February 1924 and given a five year prison sentence. While in prison Hitler wrote his famous book Mein Kampf. Enabling Act When: 24 March 1933 Where: Germanys Reichstag Who: Pres Hindenburg What: It was the second major step, after the reichstag fire decree through which Chancellor Adolf Hitler legally obtained plenary powers and established his dictatorship. It received its name from its legal status as an enabling act granting the Cabinet the authority to enact laws without the participation of the Reichstag. The act stated that it was to last for four years unless renewed by the Reichstag, which occurred twice. Final Solution When: World War 2 Where: Nazi Germany Who: Nazis, Hitler What: Decision to eradicate the entire Jewish population that the extermination camps were built and industrialized mass slaughter of Jews began in earnest. This decision to systematically kill the Jews of Europe was made by Reinhard Heydrich. He was acting under the authority given to him by Reichsmarshall Göring in a letter dated July 31, 1941. Göring instructed Heydrich to devise "...the solution of the Jewish problem..." During the conference, there was a discussion held by the group of German Nazi officials how best to handle the "Final Solution of the Jewish Question". A surviving copy of the minutes of this meeting was found by the Allies in 1947, too late to serve as evidence during the first Nuremberg Trials. By the summer of 1942, Operation Reinhard began the systematic extermination of the Jews, although hundreds of thousands already had been killed by death squads and in mass pogroms. In Heinrich Himmler's speech at the Posen Conference of October 6, 1943, Himmler, for the first time, clearly elucidated to all assembled leaders of the Reich to what the "Final Solution" referred. Village Reading rooms When: … Where: Soviet Russia What: Communal gathering spaces. Important after churches shut down. Schools didn‘t exist so propaganda started here and generals could teach.They played an important role in the elimination of illiteracy among the peasantry and in the acquisition by the peasants of culture and agricultural knowledge. They assisted Soviet and party organizations in carrying out the collectivization of agriculture. With the growth of village clubs and houses of culture, the number of village reading rooms has been decreasing. There were over 40,000 village reading rooms in the USSR in 1948; by 1970 their number had fallen to 5,700, but there were 79,300 village clubs and houses of culture and 16,500 kolkhoz clubs. Eugenics is the "applied science or the biosocial movement which advocates the use of practices aimed at improving the genetic composition of a population," usually referring to human populations. Eugenics was widely popular in the early decades of the 20th century, but by the late 20th century it had fallen into disfavor, having become associated with Nazi Germany. Both the public and some elements of the scientific community have associated eugenics with Nazi abuses, such as enforced racial hygiene, human experimentation, and the extermination of "undesired" population groups. However, developments in genetic, genomic, and reproductive technologies at the end of the 20th century have raised many new questions and concerns about the meaning of eugenics and its ethical and moral status in the modern era, effectively creating a resurgence of interest in eugenics. [i used the wiki page] Pope Pius XII When: During 2nd world war Why: Kept Jews ―In sanctuary‖ . They would come to the church and they weren‘t allowed to be touched. He did so much of this, there is now a movement to make him a Saint. Positive Christianity When: June 1932 Who: Hitler What:Baptisms done by SS. Swastika took place of cross – Christian symbols taken over by Nazi symbols. Total replacement of Christian system. Formed his own form of Christianity where he was God. Hitler must have had enough faith to know the people wanted to be religious & he must give them a religion Truman Doctorine When: March 12, 1947 What: Truman stated the Doctrine would be "the policy of the United States to support free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures." Truman reasoned, because these "totalitarian regimes" coerced "free peoples," they represented a threat to international peace and the national security of the United States. Truman made the plea amid the crisis of the Greek Civil War (1946–1949). He argued that if Greece and Turkey did not receive the aid that they urgently needed, they would inevitably fall to communism with grave consequences throughout the region. Why: The Doctrine was informally extended to become the basis of American Cold War policy throughout Europe and around the world. It shifted American foreign policy toward the Soviet Union from friendship to a policy of containment of
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