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Western University
History 2145A/B
David Norton

Trotsky - Openly condemns Stalin‟s system. - 1879-1940. - A Jew who rose to power in Russia when religion was a difficult thing to be part of (anti-Semitism) existed in Russia. - Increasing the viciousness of Lenin, his Red Terror made the CHEKA look like a joke. - Wrote material against Lenin and Stalin and eventually kicked out of the communist party and Russia moved around, he ends up in Mexico where he makes a plea to all nations: do something about Stalin. - Stalin sends men to kill Trotsky. CHEKA - Terror mechanism used by Lenin. - Brutish, thuggish, hired to intimidate those who opposed the government. - Once you were in the CHEKA, you couldn‟t leave. - Ran the Gulags and put down riots and rebellions of peasants. Kulaks - Wealthy peasant farmers, forced by Stalin to produce for the whole of Russia. - Problematic because the wealthy farmers were forced to share with the less successful farmers. - Boycotted their own machinery and burned their own crops (to get back at Stalin‟s regime). Rural Russia under Stalin was a complete disaster. - Mass killings of farmers (in secret) resulted. March on Rome (1922) - Stalin‟s plan: He will mount a horse dressed as Julius Caesar; the Roman conqueror riding into lead the nation. - He is told by his advisors to never do this. Instead, he takes the train into Rome, has a few hundred supporters, and they march to the King‟s residence (no opposition). He declares himself the leader and the source of all law and order. 1929 Papal Concordat - Pope agrees to recognize Mussolini as the leader of Italy. - Mussolini says Pope is leader in the Vatican. - Mussolini is now on good terms with Roman Catholic community. - New churches and seminaries are set up. - Pope: Mussolini sent to us by God. “Born a Need for Action” (Fascist Doctrine) - Mussolini as an author (supposedly). - The Doctrine of Fascism (an essay) – when asked, couldn‟t even define Fascism. - Mussolini recalled and destroyed all available copies after having second thoughts about the phrasing. Copies in English and Italian survived. Weimar Republic (1919-1933) - Germans changed their name out of embarrassment after the Treaty of Versailles (named after the place of signing of the Constitution). - Provisional Government: temporarily organized by the people. - Weimar Constitution: o President (no more Kaiser) will serve 4-year term. o Name of government: Reichstag. o In the case of an emergency, the president can declare a „state of emergency‟ and run the country alone. President Hindenburg - 78 at the time of election. - Although elected, was not in favour of democracy (very traditional). - Highly regarded and well-known war hero. - Redeemer; issued new laws for the country, strengthened the Reichstag, monitored currency, and maintained the new policy. - Appoints Hitler to Chancellor despite being advised against it. Munich Beer-hall Putsch - Hitler and his thugs entered the Beer Hall. Hitler jumps on the table, shoots a pistol into the air, and shouts that the revolution has begun. All doors are sealed off by SA agents while Hitler take the mayor and two others into a room. If they didn‟t agree with him after an hour, he would shoot them. - Announces he is taking over Germany and will liberate people from the restrains of the Treaty of Versailles. - The next day Hitler finds that he has no supporters. - Found that night and arrested for treachery. Sentenced to five years for conspiracy. The Reichstag Burns - Did Hitler start/plan to have the fire started? Was it part of his plan (to get rid of people and authorities he didn‟t want?) - A dull Jewish boy was seen near the Reichstag at the time, taken into custody, and confessed (even though he didn‟t do it). - Hitler uses this to prove that there are people in Germany who shouldn‟t be there and can‟t be trusted. He begins to make decrees. Enabling Act - Called Germany again. - All civil rights (newspapers, meetings had to have 3 people or less, freedom of speech and religion) are abolished. - Authorized by Hindenburg. Kristallnacht a.k.a. Night of the Long Knives - Movement against SA leadership. Hitler had become paranoid and fears conspiracy against him. - Orders killing of SA leaders. - 2000 members of the SA, 100 officials killed. - Head official Roehm was killed after other officials he was homosexual and conspiring against him. Village Reading Rooms - Unique to the Russian system (not need in Germany). - Lenin‟s idea to educated the population (so they could read Marx‟s doctrines). - People from Lenin‟s regime (priests or Bolshevik party members) would come to community buildings to teach. - Very anti-Tsars and nationalistic. - Fairly successful. Rosta Windows - Because most people could not understood telegraphs, posters were put up. They communicated to the people that the educated Bolsheviks were willing to help the uneducated. - The posters were painted with cut-out stencils of cardboard. The stencils would circulate across the Soviet Union. - Topic: curr
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