- Openly condemns Stalin‟s system.
- A Jew who rose to power in Russia when religion was a difficult thing to be part of (anti-Semitism) existed in
- Increasing the viciousness of Lenin, his Red Terror made the CHEKA look like a joke.
- Wrote material against Lenin and Stalin and eventually kicked out of the communist party and Russia
moved around, he ends up in Mexico where he makes a plea to all nations: do something about Stalin.
- Stalin sends men to kill Trotsky.
- Terror mechanism used by Lenin.
- Brutish, thuggish, hired to intimidate those who opposed the government.
- Once you were in the CHEKA, you couldn‟t leave.
- Ran the Gulags and put down riots and rebellions of peasants.
- Wealthy peasant farmers, forced by Stalin to produce for the whole of Russia.
- Problematic because the wealthy farmers were forced to share with the less successful farmers.
- Boycotted their own machinery and burned their own crops (to get back at Stalin‟s regime). Rural Russia
under Stalin was a complete disaster.
- Mass killings of farmers (in secret) resulted.
March on Rome (1922)
- Stalin‟s plan: He will mount a horse dressed as Julius Caesar; the Roman conqueror riding into lead the
- He is told by his advisors to never do this. Instead, he takes the train into Rome, has a few hundred
supporters, and they march to the King‟s residence (no opposition). He declares himself the leader and the
source of all law and order.
1929 Papal Concordat
- Pope agrees to recognize Mussolini as the leader of Italy.
- Mussolini says Pope is leader in the Vatican.
- Mussolini is now on good terms with Roman Catholic community.
- New churches and seminaries are set up.
- Pope: Mussolini sent to us by God.
“Born a Need for Action” (Fascist Doctrine)
- Mussolini as an author (supposedly).
- The Doctrine of Fascism (an essay) – when asked, couldn‟t even define Fascism.
- Mussolini recalled and destroyed all available copies after having second thoughts about the phrasing.
Copies in English and Italian survived.
Weimar Republic (1919-1933)
- Germans changed their name out of embarrassment after the Treaty of Versailles (named after the place of
signing of the Constitution).
- Provisional Government: temporarily organized by the people.
- Weimar Constitution:
o President (no more Kaiser) will serve 4-year term.
o Name of government: Reichstag. o In the case of an emergency, the president can declare a „state of emergency‟ and run the country
- 78 at the time of election.
- Although elected, was not in favour of democracy (very traditional).
- Highly regarded and well-known war hero.
- Redeemer; issued new laws for the country, strengthened the Reichstag, monitored currency, and
maintained the new policy.
- Appoints Hitler to Chancellor despite being advised against it.
Munich Beer-hall Putsch
- Hitler and his thugs entered the Beer Hall. Hitler jumps on the table, shoots a pistol into the air, and shouts
that the revolution has begun. All doors are sealed off by SA agents while Hitler take the mayor and two
others into a room. If they didn‟t agree with him after an hour, he would shoot them.
- Announces he is taking over Germany and will liberate people from the restrains of the Treaty of Versailles.
- The next day Hitler finds that he has no supporters.
- Found that night and arrested for treachery. Sentenced to five years for conspiracy.
The Reichstag Burns
- Did Hitler start/plan to have the fire started? Was it part of his plan (to get rid of people and authorities he
- A dull Jewish boy was seen near the Reichstag at the time, taken into custody, and confessed (even though
he didn‟t do it).
- Hitler uses this to prove that there are people in Germany who shouldn‟t be there and can‟t be trusted. He
begins to make decrees.
- Called Germany again.
- All civil rights (newspapers, meetings had to have 3 people or less, freedom of speech and religion) are
- Authorized by Hindenburg.
Kristallnacht a.k.a. Night of the Long Knives
- Movement against SA leadership. Hitler had become paranoid and fears conspiracy against him.
- Orders killing of SA leaders.
- 2000 members of the SA, 100 officials killed.
- Head official Roehm was killed after other officials he was homosexual and conspiring against him.
Village Reading Rooms
- Unique to the Russian system (not need in Germany).
- Lenin‟s idea to educated the population (so they could read Marx‟s doctrines).
- People from Lenin‟s regime (priests or Bolshevik party members) would come to community buildings to
- Very anti-Tsars and nationalistic.
- Fairly successful.
- Because most people could not understood telegraphs, posters were put up. They communicated to the
people that the educated Bolsheviks were willing to help the uneducated. - The posters were painted with cut-out stencils of cardboard. The stencils would circulate across the Soviet
- Topic: curr