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Western University
History 2703F/G
Peter Krats

COLONIAL ERAJanuary 19th0) OVERALL PATTERNS Three fairly distinct patterns - New England / Middle Colonies / South Demographics vary middle has more European, south has bulk of African arrivals PUSH AND PULL WHY DID IMMIGRANTS COME? Why immigration push of poverty / pull of land hunger Little choice? (Indentured servants / Slaves) POLICY Citizenship made available fairly easily Cant be a citizen if you are a citizen anywhere else (USA) President had significant deportation power Many arrivals to NF are government-backed, cant even get to QC in winter IMMIGRANT EXPERIENCES Horrible travel conditions, many arrive shackled (most infamous: African slaves) o Impacts: food, language More commonly arrive as families, not individuals o Less poor but left home because of religious pressures No schools and social organizations emerge o Schools represent local interests, may use different languages REACTIONS Immigrants are called inferior, categorized and not assimilated Slavery is quick to domesticate English model becomes we, others are others Scotts and Irish more barbaric than English, but much better than Germans People begin to imagine being one people, idea of Americanism Ben Franklin: not much use for German speakers Pilgrims and Mayflower were celebrated CONTINUITY AND CHANGE Mixed populations considerable continuity of culture / ethnicity Continuity challenged slaves prevented; Roman Catholics disliked EARLY U.S. AND BNth(1820 nd70) January 26 , February 2 OVERALL PATTERNS 19th century a period of considerable human movement Caucasian tsunami that spread even more European influence around the globe USA received massive numbers of European immigrants in the 19th century; BNA/Canada received sizeable numbers British immigration (coming in waves shaped by push/pull factors) represented a large percent of this influx; nonetheless, Continental Europe began to be a bigger factor, especially from about 1840 (rather later in Canada) Note that British over-simplifies : the Irish were the more frequent immigrants, followed evenly by English and Scottish PUSH AND PULL WHY DID IMMIGRANTS COME? Push factors: end of Napoleonic wars, famine (Irish and Scottish), civil war, Brits booting people off land to make room for sheep, government policy Pull factors: recruiting and private recruiting, word of mouth Easier technology makes sailings quicker, and [gradually] less unpleasant o Still very bad conditions in the first half of the century steerage a very tough trip Willingness land available where not in Europe (also often seen as having better overall economic opportunities) POLICY USA o Castle Garden in NY = first reception area, very little registration but government does create ports of entry to keep some control Castle Garden will eventually become Ellis Island o Homestead Act (1862) encourages small-scale farming but it is still difficult for someone to actually complete process and get their land (5 year process!) Speculators got most of land, land seemed cheap Rural immigrants faced generations of clearing land Leads to many living in urban areas o Foreign Miners Tax (1852): Chinese only had to pay this o Page Act of 1875: First federal immigration law and prohibited the entry of immigrants considered "undesirable," i.e. Chinese BNA o Brits finally appoint emigration agent o In 1840s, colonies get more local control o Gov. spends almost all $ on railways, a little on advertising o BNA Act (1867): immigration become federal and provincial IMMIGRANT EXPERIENCES Various ports of entry, but most common New York and Quebec [cheaperfare to BNA but less want to go there] Travels then (often) continue inland (gradually easier - improved roads, canals, and by 1850s railways) Rich people can travel on packet ships, but some must take cargo ships or timber ships (the worst) o People are a commodity o 20% mortality not uncommon Much disease, epidemics, ex: Grosse Ile quarantine station Many seek LAND much advertising of good / low cost land Even free land meant a need for capital quite a few immigrants have none To get land need to work for wages (often never to get land) Many wind up (by choice or necessity) in urban settings low pay, dangerous work Irish work hard to improve status, get work and prove themselves Chinese were big player in gold rush, many did railway work as well REACTIONS USA o Many are not happy about increasing immigration, some try to prevent it o Irish/Germans disliked and had image of causing trouble, Asians/Africans were past that and were at the absolute bottom o White civilization = better o White protestant model (Germans/Irish were Catholic) o Nativism: the policy of protecting the interests of native-born or established inhabitants against those of immigrants o Thought immigrants would take away jobs, corrupt politics, taxes would rise, corrupt world view and were primitive o Anti-semitism: hostility to or prejudice against Jews o Chinese arrive in 1850: Went west because of gold rush Big push factor: China in social and political unrest, poverty, revolution Were desperate similar to Irish, used for low-cost labor Seen very negatively, wo
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