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Health Sciences 1001A/B Study Guide - Final Guide: Valproate, Progressive Muscle Relaxation, Alprazolam

Health Sciences
Course Code
HS 1001A/B
Shauna Burke
Study Guide

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Personal determinants of Health Mid-Term
Chapter 1: Taking Charge of Your Heath
Health: the overall condition of your body or mind and the presence or
absence of illness or injury
Wellness: optimal health and vitality, encompassing all the dimensions of
o 2 important differences between health and wellness:
1. Health can be determined or influenced by factors beyond
your control (ex. Genes, age, health care system, care you
received as a child)
2. Wellness is largely determined by the decisions you make
about how you live
Enhanced wellness involves making conscious decisions about risk factors
that control disease
o Risk Factor: a condition that increase a person’s chance of disease or
Health Promotion: a process of enabling people to increase control over and
improve their health
o A means to achieve wellness
Dimensions of Wellness
6 interrelated dimensions of wellness:
1. Physical
2. Emotional
3. Intellectual
4. Interpersonal
5. Spiritual
6. Environmental
Physical Wellness: includes not just the overall condition of your body and the
absence of disease but also you fitness level and ability to care for yourself.
Emotional Wellness: reflects your ability to understand and deal with your
feelings. Involves attending to your thoughts and feelings, monitoring your reactions
and identifying obstacles to emotional stability.
Intellectual Wellness: those who enjoy intellectual wellness constantly change
their minds. An active mind is essential to wellness because it detects problems,
finds solutions and directs behaviour.
Interpersonal Wellness: your ability to develop and maintain satisfying and
supportive relationships
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Spiritual Wellness: enjoying spiritual wellness means possessing a set of guiding
beliefs, principles or values that give mean and purpose to your life, especially in
difficult times
Environmental Wellness: defined by the liveability of your surroundings, from
safety of food supply to level of violence in society.
Infectious Diseases are less common in todays world because of wellness
o Infectious disease: a disease that can spread from person to person,
caused by micro organisms such as bacteria and viruses
Since 1900 life expectancy has almost doubled because of the development of
vaccines to combat infectious disease
Major threat to people now is Chronic Disease
Chronic disease: a disease that develops and continues over a long period
(ex. Heart disease, cancer)
o People have some control over whether the get chronic diseases
Lifestyle Choice: a conscious behaviour that can increase or
decrease a persons risk of disease or injury; such behaviours
A health diet
For Canadians ages 15-24 leading causes of death are:
o Unintentional Injuries (accidents)
o Suicide
o Cancer
Stats Canada lists 29 ethnic origins in the population of Canada, 8
representing the majority of citizens
o When talking about health issues for divers populations there are 2
related dangers
1. Stereotyping; talking about people as groups rather then as
2. Overgeneralizing: ignoring the extensive biological and culturally
diversity that exist among people that are grouped together
Sex and gender profoundly influence wellness
o Sex: the biological and physical characteristics that define men and
Testicles in men
Menstruation in women
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o Gender: the roles, behaviours, activities, and attributes that a given
society consider appropriate for men and women
Recent study shows that men are more biologically likely then women to
suffer from certain diseases
o Men are less likely to visit their physician for regular check-ups then
More then 70% of Canadian men have not seen their doctor for
a check-up in the past year
Some diseases are more likely to occur in certain gene pools, the result of
each ethnic relatively distinct history
Ethnic groups may vary in:
o Traditional diets
o Family and interpersonal relationships
o Attitudes towards tobacco, alcohol, other drugs
o Beliefs and practices
All of these factors affect overall wellness
Serious Health conditions affect Canadian First nations and Inuit Aboriginal
People more then non-aboriginal people
o 1.5 times higher rate of heart disease
o 3-5 times higher rate of type 2 diabetes mellitus among first nations
people (related to obesity which affects 75% of this demographic)
o 8-10 times higher rate of infection from Tuberculosis
Registered Indians on-reserve are 4 times as likely to be unemployed and
earn on half the income of non-aboriginal Canadians
Inequalities in income and education underlie many of the health disparities
among Canadians
o High poverty rates and low education= the worst health status
o Poor people living in wealthy neighbourhoods had higher rates of
mortality than poor people living in lower-income areas
Possibly related to higher cost of living or psychological
People with disabilities have activity limitations, need assistance or perceive
themselves as having a disability
o 1 in 7 Canadians have some level of disability
More likely to be inactive and overweight
Report more days of depression than non-disabled people
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