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Health Sciences 1001A/B Study Guide - Final Guide: Protective Factor, Positive Psychology, Stillbirth

Health Sciences
Course Code
HS 1001A/B
Shauna Burke
Study Guide

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Personal Determinants of Health Final 2015-12-01 2:24:00 AM
Diet and Nutrition
Area where you have more control
Provides body with nutirents required to produce energy, repair
damaged tissue, promote tissue growth, regulate physiological
Choosing a healthy diet involves:
1. Knowing what and how much nutrients are necessary
2. Translating the requirements into a diet consisting of foods you like
and that are affordable for you
Nutritional Requirements:
Body requires 50 essential nutrients
o Proteins, fats, carbs, vitamins, minerals and water
Essential = must get substances from food because body is unable
to manufacture them (or not enough to meet needs)
Body obtains nutrients through digestion
Energy in food expressed in kilocalories= scientific expression of the
energy value of a food
Three classes of essential nutrients supply energy:
o Fat = 9 calories/g
o Protein= 4 calories/g
o Carbohydrate= 4 calories/g
Alcohol= 7 calories/g
*calorie intake>energy needs=converted to fat and stored in body
Promote growth and maintenance of muscle and connective tissue
Form important part of blood, enzymes, some hormones, and cell
Composed of chains of AA’s
o 9 essential AA’s
Foods that contain 9 essential amino acids are complete proteins
Essential AA’s can be obtained from combinations of incomplete
protein sources
Provide concentrated form of energy
Give some foods a pleasing taste, texture
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Help absorption of fat-soluble vitamins
Insulate our bodies to retain heat and provide a protective cushion
for internal organs
Visible fats ~40% of fat we consume
Essential fat include linoleic acid (omega-6) and alpha- linoleic acid
Dietary fat consists of a combination of 3 forms of fat based on
chemical composition
1. Saturated:
o Typically solid at room temp
o Found naturally in animal products (ex. Meat, cheese)
2. Monounsaturated
o Typically liquid at room temp
o Usually from plant source (ex. Olive, canola oil)
3. Polyunsaturated
o Typically liquid at room temp
o Usually from plant source (ex. Soybean and corn oil)
o Includes 2 essential fatty acids
Trans fatty acidsunsaturated fatty acids produced by
Used to increase stability of oil so it can be reused for deep frying,
to increase texture of foods, and to increase shelf life of foods
Leading source are deep fried foods, baked and snack foods, and
stick margarine
** the softer a fat is, the less saturated and trans fat it is likely to contain
Fats and Cholesterol
Low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol bad cholesterol
o Saturated and trans fatty acids increase blood levels
o Unsaturated fatty acids decrease blood levels
High density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol good cholesterol
o Monounsaturated fatty acids may increase blood levels
o Trans fatty acids may decrease blood levels in large amounts
Fats: Weight Management
Type of fat seems to contribute most to CVD
o Trans fat consistently associated with higher risk of CHD
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o Unsaturated fats appear to be most beneficial in terms of
** choose unsaturated fats instead of saturated and trans fats to decrease
risk of HD
Various combinations of sugar units
Used primarily for energy
Occur in 3 forms:
1. Monosaccharaides (one unit)
ex. Glucose (blood sugar)
2. Disaccharides (two units)
ex. Sucrose (table sugar)
3. Polysaccharides (>2 units)
ex. Starches
Starches= among the most important source of dietary carbs
Found primarily in grains, legumes, potatoes, and yams
Unrefined (whole grain) complex carbs are high in fibre, vitamins,
minerals, and other compounds
Also take longer to chew and digest, enter blood stream slower
Carbs: Weight Management
Low carb diets (ex. Atkins) contain <30g carbs/day adherence
difficult with <35% of energy from carbs
People can lose weight at start of atkins diet because they are
burning fat stores (store with ~10 lbs of water)
Weight loss: low-carb and low-fat diets not significantly different
after 12 to 24 months
Type of carb in diet is important
o complex whole grain carbs high in fibere associated with
increased satiety compared to refined carbs (sugar or white
bread) which produce a rapid sharp increase in insulin
Non-digestible carbs from pants
Can decrease risk of type 2 diabetes, HD and increase
gastrointestinal health
Comes from foods including fresh fruits and vegtables, and those
made from whole grains
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