Additional Readings Notes (Ch. 1-4)
Good Science Vs. Bad Science
Thesis: Gasoline lead is responsible for a good share of the rise and fall of
violent crime over the past half century”
oAnother physician argued that a correlation between the 2 phenomenon
does not equal cause-and-e'ect
Tips to avoid palling prey to bad science in health stores:
oIs the sample representative
Are the right humans involved?
Men, women, children, sick, well...
oIs the treatment or exposure consistent with the way it would exist in
the real world?
Time frames, comparison to others products
oWho funded the research
oWas the report based on experimental or observational science
Controlled experiments involve exposing one group to an
intervention (a pill or treatment) and another group to a placebo,
and then seeing whether the 2 fare di'erently If the two groups
were randomly assigned to the treatment or intervention, and they
have di'erent outcomes, you can be reasonably con/dent that the
outcomes were the result of exposure to that treatment or
intervention. This is because outside variables that the scientists
don’t control for—or confounding factors— would be equally
distributed between the two groups.
Randomized experiments are more trustworthy than observational
Observational studies have limitations to di'erent types of studies
and claims that can be made about them
oHow big is the study?
Larger studies with more people are generally better because big
studies are usually more representative of the broader population
and less in6uenced by extreme cases than small studies
oWhat about the other evidence?
Many studies, in di'erent contexts, using di'erent methods, on
di'erent populations will change clinical practice and thinking
Evidence based blogs minimize bias, sum up all the research on a
subject and will get you closer to the truth than any single study