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Western University
Health Sciences
Health Sciences 1001A/B

Jennifer Lam Dec 2013Health science 1001 Dr Burke1CHAPTER 1Health state of complete physical mental and social wellbeing and not merely the absence of disease or infirmityWHO 1948Health seen as a resource for everyday life a positive concept emphasizing social and personal resources as well as physical capabilitiesWHO 1986Wellness ability to live life fully with vitality and meaning7dimensions of wellnessPhysical Interpersonal Mental Occupational Emotional Environmental SpiritualPIMOEES Pigs in Mexico often eat egg saladLife expectancy early 1900s 588 M 606 FIn Canada 20072009 788 M 833 FRegions with higher life expectancy are in and west of OntarioBC had one of the lowest obesity rates40 obesity in Newfoundland highest in countryLeading preventable causes of deathsmoking poor diet inactivity alcohol abusePanCanadian healthy living strategyGoaldecrease chronic diseases by addressing risk factors and societal conditions that contribute to themEmphasizeshealthy eating physical activity health weightsConsiders personal behavior and social economic environmental influences on lifestyle choicesSelfefficacy belief in your ability to successfully take action and perform a specific taskDevelop internal locus of control Visualization and selftalk Obtain social supportfind role modelsTranstheoretical model for behaviour change Prochaska and DiClementeStage 1 PrecontemplationNo intent on changing within next 6 monthsStage 2 ContemplationAware of problem see themselves taking action within next 6 monthsStage 3 PreparationPlan to take action within a month maybe have started making small changesStage 4 ActionPlans for change are implementedChanges made and sustained for 6 months risk for reverting back to unhealthy behaviourStage 5 MaintenanceMaintained for at least 6 months usually lasts from 6 months to about 5 yearsStage 6 TerminationJennifer Lam Dec 2013Health science 1001 Dr Burke2No longer tempted to lapse into old behaviourNew selfimage and complete selfefficacyCHAPTER 2Psychosocial health mental emotional social spiritual dimensions of healthPsychological healthNegative and narrow definitionabsence of mental illnessPositive and broad definitionpresence of mental wellnessFulfillment of human potential Maslows hierarchy of needsPhysiological safety lovebelonging esteem selfactualizationCharacterized by specific qualities realism acceptance autonomy capacity for intimacy creativitySelfEsteem and Hardiness work together to ensure psychological healthHardiness high level of commitment to something or someone sense of control welcome challengeDepressionAlmost 3 million Canadians suffer from itWomen are twice as likely to be clinically depressedOnly 35 seek helpMajor depressionPrimary or endogenousbegins for no apparent reason likely caused by changes in brain chemistrySecondary or exogenousdevelops after periods of difficultyDysthymia persistent symptoms of mild or moderate depression for 2 years or morePsychotherapy typically a form of cognitivebehavioural therapy CBT in which person learns how to recognize and deal with life situations in a constructive fashionDrug therapy involves one or more of four classes of antidepressive medications such as Monoamine Oxidase MAO Tricyclic antidepressants Selective Serotonin reuptake inhibitors SSRI Serotoninnorepinephrine reuptake inhibitorsOther treatments physical activity electroconvulsive therapy ECT complimentary treatments eg St Johns wortSuicideSecond leading cause of death among youthWomen attempt suicide 3x more than men but males are 4x more likely to die from an attemptBipolar alternating periods of depression and maniaExcessive elation irritability talkativeness inflated SE expansivenessJennifer Lam Dec 2013Health science 1001 Dr Burke3Treated primarily with mood stabilizersEqual numbers for men and womenAnxiety stress is intense longlasting dysfunctionalnd2 most common of all mental health problemsAbout 1 in 10 Canadians females more likelyPanic disorder experience severe physical symptoms from panic attacks2 million Canadians23 of those who seek help are womenCan lead to agoraphobia fear of being in situations which would be difficult to escapeGeneralized anxiety disorder GAD intense and nonspecific anxiety for at least 6 monthsObsessivecompulsive disorder OCD obsessions or compulsions aimed at reducing anxietyPosttraumatic stress disorder PTSD symptoms typically begin within 3 months of traumatic eventTreating anxiety disordersInvolves a combination of medication and cognitive behaviour therapy for panic disorder OCD GADAntidepressants increase serotonin levels relaxation techniques stress management exercise nutritionModels of human nature and therapeutic change1Biological medical modelPharmacological treatments2Behavioural modelExposure3Cognitive modelCognitive changing negative thoughts4Psychodynamic modelInterpersonal humanistic existential experiential makes conscious that which is unconsciousCHAPTER 3StressReponses to stressors include1Physical changesnervous and endocrine systemautonomicsympathetic releases norepinephrine and parasympatheticwhen brain detects threatneurochemical message sent to hypothalamus releases chemicals to pituitary gland which releases adrenocorticotropic hormone ACTH into bloodstreamACTH reaches adrenal glands which release cortisol and other key hormones into bloodstreamAs all this is happening the adrenal glands also release epinephrine adrenaline2Emotional and behavioural responsesFight or flight Sir Walter CannonTend and befriend social and nurturing behaviours
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