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[Health Sciences 1002A/B] - Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam (74 pages long!)


Department
Health Sciences
Course Code
HS 1002A/B
Professor
Jessica Polzer
Study Guide
Final

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Western
Health Sciences 1002A/B
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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Lecture 1 - Key Course Concepts
Tuesday, January 05, 2016
Social system
Individualism
Path of least resistance
Perspectives on health
2 perspectives on health:
Individual
Social
Perspective:
Mental outlook; viewpoint
Examine your own perspective on health; unlearn or confirm truths/falsehoods
Bias:
All perspectives have limits and boundaries
Always limited
Scope of vision will change if you actively try to understand the perspectives of other people
"Objective truth" is not the only truth that matters
Multiple perspectives and realities are all connected to any truth that you are working towards within the
social and practical context of the world
Individual Perspective
Generally Western view of health is focused on
o Exercise
o Nutrition
o The looks of the body
o Healthcare/medical perspective
Doctors are the only providers of health
o Individual-oriented
o Not a huge amount of emphasis on mental health and stress relief etc.
The ways we think about health in any society are conveyer belts for other viewpoints and ideas and attitudes
re:
o Responsibility
o Deservedness
o Accountability
Top 10 list:
o Smoking
o Eating a balanced diet
o Being physically active
o Limit stress
o Moderate toxic substances
o Etc
"Lifestyle"
o Encapsulates everything we do
o Dominates NA/western society
o Social factors are much more accurate predictors of health than individual lifestyle choices AT THE
GROUP LEVEL
Lifestyle explanations rooted in ideology of individualism
"individuals could be rational decision makers and knowers etc"
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Knowledge and education are not actually enough to make popns healthy
Became popular in the 1970s
Social Perspective
Health and suffering are not distributed randomly
o There is a pattern to it that can be explained by knowledge of social phenomena
Economic
Political
Historical
Cultural
o Example: HIV infection rates
o Example: infant mortality
Speaks to the quality of healthcare systems and quality of care for women specifically
Ex: big regional differences in Canada; can ask questions directed at those points of discrepancy
Social factors are generally difficult to control at an individual level
Articulation of a social perspective on health
o Root causes of ill health and suffering are in social arrangements and inequalities
o Systematic variation of health
o Political influence on health
Video: Elizabeth Pisani "the wisdom of whores"
How does Pisani explain the difference between knowledge and behaviour of injection drug users?
o Knowledge is not enough to make change
o "people do stupid things - that's what spreads HIV"
What different rationalities does Pisani illustrate?
o "rational" = dominant paradigm in public health
o "what a junkie thinks is rational"
Nearly a hundred percent of drug addicts knew intellectually where and why to get clean
needles to avoid HIV infection
If you 're carrying a needle and get caught you could be thrown into jail
Long term problems (HIV) vs short term problems (going to jail, probably being exposed to
HIV anyway)
o Knowledge is present, but behaviour is more oriented towards opinion/external influences and attitudes
What are the reasons for decisions made about HIV prevention from the different perspectives
highlighted (eg IDUs, policy makers)?
o Policies that relate to making clean needles available and without stigma reduced rates of HIV
infection in countries that adopted it
Margaret thatcher
National health service
Public $$
o Cost of public health investment
In countries where treatment is covered by "the state", it makes sense to invest in things early if
it means offsetting costs later
Economics + voting concerns
o Nothing showing that needle exchanges are ineffective
However, politicians cater to what they think the public opinion is/wants
o Treatment changes the rationale behind preventative measures in sexually transmitted HIV
Treatment is important but should not be the only "prevention" method out there
People are not as scared of HIV as they are of AIDs
In gay men, the combined effect of being less worried about the infection and more virus in the
population caused HIV rates to spike
o It's rational for a drug injection to make stupid decisions because of a policy made by a politician
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
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