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Semester 2 Midterm Textbook Notes.docx

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Health Sciences
Health Sciences 1002A/B
Shauna Burke

Health Science Semester 2 Midterm Textbook Notes CHAPTER 1 DEFIINITIONS Infectious disease: a disease that can spread from person to person; caused by micro-organisms, such as bacteria and viruses Chronic disease: a disease that develops and continues over a long period, such as heart disease or cancer Lifestyle choice: a conscious behaviour that can increase or decrease a person’s risk of disease or injury; such behaviours include eating a healthy diet, smoking, exercising, and others. Sex: the biological and physiological characteristics that define men and women Gender: the roles, behaviours, activities, and attributes that a given society considers appropriate from men and women Genome: the complete set of genetic material in an individual’s cell Gene: the basic unit of heredity; a section of genetic material containing chemical instructions for making a particular protein Behaviour change: a lifestyle-management process that involves cultivating healthy behaviours and working to overcome unhealthy ones Target behaviour: an isolated behaviour selected as the subject of behaviour change program Self-efficacy: the belief in your ability to take action and perform a specific task Locus of control: the figurative place a person designates as the source of responsibility for the events in his or her life CHAPTER 2 DEFINITIONS Psychological health: mental health, defined either negatively as the absence of illness or positively as the presence of wellness Self-actualization: the highest level of growth in Maslow’s hierarchy Self-concept: the ideas, feelings, and perceptions people have about themselves; also called self-image Self-esteem: satisfaction and confidence in yourself; the valuing of yourself as a person Autonomy: independence; the sense of being self-directed Inner-directed: guided in behaviour by an inner set of rules and values Other-directed: guided in behaviour by the values and expectations of others Authenticity: genuineness Normality: the psychological characteristics attributed to the majority of people in a population at a given time Identity crisis: internal confusion about who you are Values: criteria for judging what is good and bad, which underlie a person’s moral decisions and behaviour Cognitive distortion: a pattern of negative thinking that makes events seem worse than they are Self-talk: the statements a person makes to himself or herself Defence mechanism: a mental device for coping with conflict or anxiety Assertiveness: expression that is forceful but not hostile Anxiety: a feeling of fear that is not directed toward any definite threat Simple (specific) phobia: a persistent and excessive fear of a specific object, activity, or situation Social phobia: an excessive fear of being observed in public; speaking in public is the most common example Panic disorder: a syndrome of severe anxiety attacks accompanied by physical symptoms Agoraphobia: an anxiety disorder characterized by fear of being alone, away from help, and avoidance of many different places and situations; in extreme cases, a fear of leaving home Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD): an anxiety disorder characterized by excessive, uncontrollable worry about all kinds of things and anxiety in many situations Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD): an anxiety disorder characterised by uncontrollable, recurring thoughts and the performing or irrational rituals Obsession: a recurrent, irrational, unwanted thought or impulse Compulsion: an irrational, repetitive, forced action, usually associated with an obsession Behavioural addiction: an activity or a behaviour that is maladaptive and persistent despite the negative consequences Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD): an anxiety disorder characterized by reliving traumatic events though dreams, flashbacks, and hallucinations Mood disorder: an emotional disturbance that is intense and persistent enough to affect normal function; two common types of mood disorders are depression and bipolar disorder Depression: a mood disorder characterized by loss of interest, sadness, hopelessness, loss of appetite, disturbed sleep, and other physical symptoms Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT): the use of electric shock to induce brief, generalized seizures, used in the treatment of selected psychological disorders Seasonal affective disorder (SAD): a mood disorder characterized by seasonal depression, usually occurring in winter, when there is less daylight Mania: a mood disorder characterized by excessive elation, irritability, talkativeness, inflated self- esteem, and expansiveness Bipolar disorder: a mood disorder characterized by alternating periods of depression and mania Schizophrenia: a psychological disorder that involves a disturbance in thinking and in perceiving reality Placebo: a chemically inactive substance that a patient believes is an effective medical therapy for his or her condition; to help evaluate a therapy, medical researchers compare the effects of a particular therapy with the effects of a placebo; the placebo effect occurs when a patient responds to a placebo as if it were an active drug Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): a disorder characterized by persistent, pervasive problems with inattention or hyperactivity, or both, to a degree that is considered inappropriate for a person’s developmental stage and that causes significant difficulties in school, work, or relationships Stimulus: anything that causes a response Response: a reaction to a stimulus Reinforcement: increasing the future probability of a response by following it with a reward Exposure: a therapeutic technique for treating fear in which the subject learns to come into direct contact with a feared situation CHAPTER 3 DEFINITIONS Stressor: any physical or psychological event or condition that produces stress Stress response: they physical and emotional changes associated wit
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