Health Sciences 2000A/B Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Insulin Resistance, Urban Planner, Urban Design

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What Is Health? When Is Health Unhealthy?
Disagreements about the meaning of health are common because health can have medical, social, economic,
spiritual, and many other components
Learning Objectives
Apply the four models of Health to a real life example
Compare the different models: including benefits and limitations to each
Recognize the fundamental objective of the World Health Organization, and how it relates to the individual and
society
Evaluate key components of health involved with the four models
Theorize how different perceptions of health and wellness are influenced by technology
Explore the importance of defining health on an individual level and community level
Complete Obsession
Apotemnophilia An attraction to the idea of being an amputee
Zenomelia – The oppressive feeling that one or more limbs of one’s body do not belong to one’s self
Large number of people interested: One discussion group has 1400 subscribers
Robert Smith, a surgeon at Falkirk and District Royal Infirmary, in Scotland had amputated the legs of two patients
at their request, and he was planning to carry out a third amputation when the trust that runs his hospital stopped
him. These patients were not physically sick. Their legs did not need to be amputated for any medical reason. Nor
were they incompetent, according to the psychiatrists who examined them. They simply wanted to have their legs
cut off. In fact, both the men whose limbs Smith amputated have declared in public interviews how much happier
they are
Medical Model
Definition of HealthAbsence of disease or disability
Treatment – The body as a machine, to be fixed when broken: restore balance
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Research – Medical research currently is centered around the medical model (although the newer definitions of
health are exerting an influence)
Benefits
Highly productive in the advancement of the medical sciences and health (Wood 1986)
Objective view: easily measured
Limitations
De-emphasizes prevention
Difficulty of adapting it to emotional and psychiatric disorders
Disease is more than biological, as social and economic factors must be taken into account
WHO
Created on 7 April 1948 by the member states of the United Nations
Fundamental objective of “the attainment by all peoples of the highest possible level of health”
Challenged political, academic, community, and professional organizations devoted to improving or preserving
health to be accountable for their work
WHO Model
Definition of HealthA state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of
disease or infirmity (United Nations 1984)
Prevention – Preventative care is widely practiced, with routine physicals and vaccinations
Research – Used in important health studies – more emphasis on the connection between physical and mental health
Social Health
Individuals as social beings whose health is affected by social behaviour and interaction
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Alameda County study – First study to look at nature and extent of social networks (marriage, close friends,
relatives, etc.)
Found that social networks have broad health consequences
Collective – Social networks (Berkman & Breslow 1983)
Individual – Social participation in activities and interpersonal interactions (Ware 1981)
Who Model
Benefits
A somewhat comprehensive definition of health
Developed more practical norm for mental and social health
Limitations
Social factors: Independent dimensions of health? (Newhouse & HIEG, 1993; Ware et al. 1981)
No consensus on the meaning of well-being in the definition (Bice 1976)
Ultimate goal more than a guideline for concrete action
Difficult to measure health in a sense that would satisfy usual scientific criteria (Breslow 1972)
Wellness Model
Definition of Health – Health is greatly influenced by personal feelings – energy, comfort, and the ability to
perform (Greer 1986); linkage between mind and body
Treatment
The wellness model recognizes that very large numbers of diseases are healed by the body itself (Dubos 1979)
Health promotion and disease prevention are key elements: Helping oneself in the process, or recovery is slowed
Research – Focusing on not only on the whole person but also on promoting the positive aspects of health
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