Health Sciences 2000A/B Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Genetic Discrimination, Reward System, Schizophrenia

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Health Behaviour Change and Risk Motivation
Health Behaviours
Influenced by the social, cultural and physical environments in which we live and work
Shaped by…?
Early indicators of…?
Can be classified into two broad categories:
Risk Behaviours (Health Compromising) – Harm current or future health
Smoking
Junk food
Alcohol consumption
Positive Behaviours (Health-Enhancing) – Promote health and prevent disease
Young adults, particularly men, are most likely to engage in health risk behaviours
Why?
Characteristics of Health Compromising Behaviours
Window of vulnerability in adolescence
Behaviours are tied to peer culture
Image of these behaviours as ‘cool’
Behaviours, though dangerous, are pleasurable
Behaviours develop gradually rather than being acquired ‘all at once’
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Capturing Patterns of Behaviour in Canada
“To capture patterns of behaviour in Canada, four indicators are present: two health risk behaviours, and two
associated with disease prevention” – Stats Canada
Current smoking
Heavy drinking
Leisure-time physical activity
Fruit and vegetable consumption
Behaviour Change Models
The Health Belief Model
The Theory of Reasoned Action/Planned Behaviour
Social Cognitive Theory
The Transtheoretical Model
The Health Belief Model
Use:
It was originally conceived by social psychologists in the public health arena in an attempt to understand the
“widespread failure of people to accept disease preventives or screening tests for the early detection of
asymptomatic disease”
Predicting who would utilize screening tests and/or vaccinations
Used for intervening with health screening, illness, sick role, and precautionary behaviours
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Concept Definition Application
Perceived Susceptibility One’s opinion of chances of
getting a condition
Define population(s) at risk, risk
levels; personalize risk
behaviour based on a person’s
features or behaviour; heighten
perceived susceptibility if too
low
Perceived Severity One’s opinion of how serious a
condition and its consequences
are
Specify consequences of the
risk and the condition
Perceived Benefits One’s belief in the efficacy of
the advised action to reduce risk
or seriousness of impact
Define action to take; how,
where, when; clarify the
positive effects to be expected
Perceived Barriers One’s opinion of the tangible
and psychological costs of the
advised action
Identify and reduce barriers
through reassurance, incentives,
assistance
Cues to Action Strategies to activate
“readiness”
Provide how-to information,
promote awareness, reminders
Self-Efficacy Confidence in one’s ability to
take action
Provide training, guidance in
performing action
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