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Health Sciences 2300A/B Final: Week 7 - Muscles and Nerves of the Lower Limbs – Exam Study Guide
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14 Pages
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Department
Health Sciences
Course Code
Health Sciences 2300A/B
Professor
Gillian Gabriela Corbo

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Muscles and Nerves of the Lower Limbs – Exam Study Guide
What are the transitional areas of the lower limb?
I. Femoral triangle
II. Popliteal Fossa
III. Tarsal Tunnel
What is the function of superficial gluteal muscles?
- Originate from the sacrum and insert onto the femur IT band
- They act on the femur to allow extension, abduction, lateral rotation, and medial rotation
Fill in the following chart about superficial gluteal muscles.
Muscle Origin Insertion Action Innervation
Gluteus
Maximus
Posterior
surface of ilium
& Sacrum
Gluteal
tuberosity & IT
band
Abducts,
extends &
laterally rotates
hip
Inferior Gluteal
Nerve
Gluteus Medius Ilium b/w
gluteal lines
Greater
trochanter
Abducts and
medially rotates
hip
Superior Gluteal
Nerve
Gluteus
Minimus
Ilium b/w
Gluteal lines
Greater
Trochanter
Abducts and
medially rotates
hip
Superior Gluteal
Nerve
What is the fascia of the lower limb?
The Iliotibial tract is a lateral thickening of the fascia late that encases al the muscles of the
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thigh.
Spans from the slum to just below the knee.
Explain how a Tight ITB can cause knee pain. How is this problem solved?
- Common in people who run a lot
- People think that a way to decrease ITB tightness is to roll a foam roller – which is not
affective because its straight tissue and won’t lengthen due to not having any contractile
properties
- A way to help this is to roll your glutes – when you stretch your glute max, it will reduce the
tightness of the ITB because it inserts onto the ITB
How do the Superior Gluteal Nerve and Inferior Gluteal Nerve run in relation to the
superficial gluteal muscles?
Superior Gluteal Nerve
- Exits superior to piriformis and remains deep
Inferior Gluteal Nerve
- Exits inferior to the piriformis muscle and is superficial
How do the gluteus medius and minimum function during gait?
- Play an essential role in gait/locomotion by stabilizing the pelvis
- When the left limb is unsupported, the right medium and minimum work to tilt the left pelvis
up
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When does Trendelenberg Gait occur? What does it result form? What type of muscle paralysis
is it?
- Usually results from paralysis of the superior gluteal nerve causing a pelvic tilt when you lift
your foot
- If the right SGN then when you lift the left foot you will see the paralyzed side
- It is contralateral
How do you stretch and exercise the Gluteus Maximus, Medius, and Minimum?
Gluteus Maximus
Stretch → Flex hip
Exercise → Squats
Gluteus Medius and Minimus
Stretch → Move it laterally
Exercise → Abduct your hip against resistance
What do the deep gluteal muscles do?
- Act on the femur to allow lateral rotation - 3 of the muscles merge to form a common tendon
What is the origin and insertion for the Piriformis, Superior Gemellus, Inferior
Gemellus, Quadratus Femoris, Obturator Internus?
Piriformis
O: Sacrum
I: Proximal Femur
Superior Gemellus
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Description
The Iliotibial tract is a lateral thickening of the fascia late that encases al the muscles of the thigh. Spans from the slum to just below the knee. Explain how a Tight ITB can cause knee pain. How is this problem solved? Common in people who run a lot People think that a way to decrease ITB tightness is to roll a foam roller which is not affective because its straight tissue and wont lengthen due to not having any contractile properties A way to help this is to roll your glutes when you stretch your glute max, it will reduce the tightness of the ITB because it inserts onto the ITB How do the Superior Gluteal Nerve and Inferior Gluteal Nerve run in relation to the superficial gluteal muscles? Superior Gluteal Nerve Exits superior to piriformis and remains deep Inferior Gluteal Nerve Exits inferior to the piriformis muscle and is superficial How do the gluteus medius and minimum function during gait? Play an essential role in gaitlocomotion by stabilizing the pelvis When the left limb is unsupported, the right medium and minimum work to tilt the left pelvis up
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