Articulations Lecture Notes.docx

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Western University
Health Sciences
Health Sciences 2300A/B
Jamie Melling

HS 2300B AnatomyLecture 5 ArticulationsFebruary 26th 2014Functional Classification1Synarthrosesimmovable ie sutures between the bones of the cranium2Amphiarthrosesslightly movable ie joint between the ribs and sternumthe costal cartilage that creates a jointthere is movementeverytime we take a deep breath the ribs move up to enhance the space in which our lungs can uptake oxygen from the atmospherethis is moving with respect to one anotherguided and regulated3Diarthrosesfreely movable ie should knees and hipsTypically see synarthrotic and amphiarthrotic joints in the axial skeletonDiarthrotic are seen in the appendicular skeletonStructural ClassificationFibrous JointsTight no joint cavity no hyalineLittle to no movementdense connective tissueSutures sydesmoses gomphosesSkull interossesus membranes teethCreates a very strong bond between the two bonesFibrous materials joining two bones togetherDense with collagen fibresstrongYou have fibres inside of the sutures that keep the bones inside the cranium togetherSydesmoseshave ligaments that join two bones together dense regularInterosseus Membranesconcentrated bone and regular banded ligamentkeeps the fibia and tibia togetherGomphosisa type of joint in which you have a pocket in which a bone sits into attached by a ligamentexists in the teeth or the mouthie pocket on the mandible is where the tooth fits into what holds that tooth in place is the paradontical ligamentAnwhere you have something holding two bones together is a fibrous jointA ligament is a fibrous material Cartilaginous Joints Still no joint cavity might have hyalineArticulation bones are united with cartilageNot very moveableSynchondroses symphysesWith Hyaline without hyalineSynchondrosesthe main cell line in hyaline cartilage is a chondrocyte it is made up of cartilaginous materialthere is hyaline cartilageie knobby knee that is on the growth plate epiphyseal plateuntil these portions of the bones are united after we have stopped growing there are actually two separate portions of the bonethe head is separate from the shaft because you have a joint hyaline cartilage connecting theseie joint between the ribs and the sternum costochondral jointjoins the ribs and the sternum Symphysesie pubic symphyses in addition to cartilage they have fibrous material as wellthey are in a disc menisci that we have at the pubic symphysesie intervertebral cartilage in the middle Synovial JointsHave it all Joint cavity hyaline movementMost joints in the body are synovial jointsMaterial that surrounds the articulating points of the jointthe bones that meet those surfaces you cant actually see those bones articulating with another because there is a capsule around themcalled a joint capsulecreates a cabining inside where the bones are articulating with one anothercontained within a joint cavityLooking at the tibia and femurif you were to move away the muscles you wouldnt be able to see the femoral condyles or the tibial plateau unless you move the capsule that surrounds the knee joint The cavity is crucial to synovial joints because it creates a closed space in which we can have fluidcalled synovial fluidthe fluids primary function is to act as a lubricant so that the bones can glide nicely across each otherIf you can see a cavity you can identify it as a synovial jointIf you can actually see the ends of the joint it is either a cartilaginous joint or a fibrous jointno capsule or articulation of the bonesWe also describe the joints are in the presence of hyaline cartilagefibrous joint the hyaline cartilage isnt connecting the bones together you either have ligaments holding it togetherA cartilaginous joint has cartilage joining bones togetherthere is always a presence of hyalinebut it may not be the actual tissue that is joining the bones together It either has hyaline cartilage joining the bones together or it has a discthat would be a symphyses type of jointDisc has cartilageon the outside it has fibrous material hyaline in the middleYou are always going to have cartilageif you cant see the cartilage you can identify it as a fibrous jointCaution hyaline may not be responsible for joining the bones together by being in a disc it may be the fibrous material around the disc that may be articulating the joints together
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