Childhood and Adol Health - Berk Readings for Final Summary

13 Pages
Unlock Document

Western University
Health Sciences
Health Sciences 2700A/B
Treena Orchard

(pg 283 – 287) Physical and Cognitive Development in Adolescence  Conceptions of Adolescence  Adolescence is the transition between childhood and adulthood  Beginning of adolescence is marked by puberty  a flood of biological events leading to an adult-sized body and sexual maturity  Theorists explained the impact of puberty on psychological development by resorting to extremes  20 C: theorists saw adolescence as a “storm-and-stress” perspective  Hall : saw adolescence as a very turbulent period; much like the era where humans evolved from savages into civilized human beings  Anna Freud: teenage years are biologically based, “developmental disturbance”  Contemporary: storm-and-stress notion of adolescence is exaggerated  Yes, there are more incidences of eating disorders, depression, suicide and lawbreaking in adolescence than in childhood...  BUT, the overall rate of psychological disturbances only increases slightly from childhood to adolescence  Margaret Mead: social environment is entirely responsible for teenage experiences  Eg: in Samoa Island, the culture is very relaxed and very open to sexuality, so adolescence is “perhaps the pleasantest time for a Samoan girl”  Today it is understood that biological psychological and social forces all contribute to adolescent development  Biological changes are universal – in all locations and all cultures  Due to internal stresses and social expectations (giving up childish ways, develop new relationships, take on greater responsibility), moment s of uncertainty, self-doubt, and disappointment are all likely to prompt  The types of stresses vary across cultures  Tribal and village societies have a brief stage in between childhood and adulthood  Industrialized nations, young people face extra years of dependence on parents AND postpone sexual gratification as they prepare for a productive work life  Extended adolescence  Puberty: The Physical Transition to Adulthood  Hormonal Changes  Genetically influences hormonal processes regulate pubertal growth  Girls advanced in physical maturity since the prenatal period, reach puberty, on average, 2 years earlier than boys  Hormonal changes are underway by age 8 or 9  Growth Hormone and thyroxine lead to large gains in body size and to attainment of skeletal maturity  Pubertal changes  1) overall body growth, 2) maturation of sexual characteristics  Puberty is the time of greatest sexual differentiation since prenatal life for boys and girls  Sexual maturation is controlled by the sex hormones  Estrogens  female hormones (but still found in males)  Ovaries release estrogens  leads to breast development, uterus, and vagina to mature, the body to take on feminine proportion, and gain fat, and contribute to the menstruation cycle  Adrenal Androgens released from adrenal glands on top of each kidney, influences girls’ height spurt, growth of underarm and pubic hair  Little impact on boys  Androgens  male hormones (but still found in females)  Testes release large amounts of androgen testosterone  leads to muscle growth, body and facial hair, gains in body size  Testes release small amounts of estrogen  For both boys and girls, estrogens increase GH (growth hormone) this adds to the growth spurt. And when combined with androgens, stimulation gains in bone density (continues into early adulthood)  Body Growth  Growth spurt = the first outward sign of puberty is the rapid gain in height AND weight  Starts at age 10 for girls  Starts at age 12.5 for boys  Girl is taller and heavier during early adolescence  but this is short lived!  By age 14, she is surpassed by a boy who’s growth spurt has started, and hers is almost finished  Growth in body size is complete for girls at 16, and for boys at 17.5 (when the epiphyses at the ends of the longs bones close completely)  Adolescence add 10-11 inches in height and 50-75 lbs in body weight  Body Proportions:  During puberty, the CEPHALOCAUDAL growth trend of infancy and childhood reverses  Hands, legs, feet accelerate first, followed by the torso  accounts for most of adolescent height gain  This explains why early adol may have large feet and/or hands with long legs  Boys’ shoulders broaden, end up having longer legs (this is because of 2 extra years of preadolescent growth when legs grow the fastest)  Girls’ hips broaden  Muscle Fat Makeup and Other Internal Changes:  At age 8, girls add fat to their arms, legs and butt  this process speeds up at ages 11- 16  The opposite happens for boys; the fat decreases in these areas  Both sexes gain in muscles; but boys gain a LOT more  The number of red blood cells (the ability to carry more oxygen) increase in boys but NOT in girls  All of the above contributes to the fact that boys on average perform better at sports than girls  Motor Development and Physical Activity  Girls’ gains are slow and gradual starting from age 14, and by midadolescence, few girls perform as well as boys in running speed, broad jump, and throwing distance  Boys’ gains are a dramatic spurt in strength, speed, and endurance that continues through the teenage years  For boys, athletic competence  related to peer admiration and self-esteem  Some end up taking drugs to boost muscle mass and strength  bad!  Sports and exercise improve: motor performance, cognitive and social development  They provide important lessons in teamwork, problem solving, assertiveness, and competition  Associated also with lifelong health benefits  Sexual Maturation  Primary sexual characteristics = involve the reproductive organs  Females: ovaries, uterus, vagina  Males: penis, scrotum, testes  Secondary sexual characteristics = are visible on the outside of the body and serve as additional signs of sexual maturity  Females: breast development  Males and females: appearance of underarm and pubic hair  Typically take 4 year to develop completely  Sexual Maturation in Girls:  Begins with building of the breasts and growth spurt  Menarche = first menstruation (typically at the age of 12.5, after the peak of the height spurt)  Following menarche, breast development and pubic hair growth are complete and underarm hair appears  Sexual maturity can only take place for a girl once her body is large enough to be pregnant  Voice deepens slightly  Typically finish sexual maturation by age 14.5  Sexual Maturation in Boys:  First sign of puberty in boys = enlargement of testes, changes in texture and colour of the scrotum, pubic hair emerges, penis enlarges  Growth spurt is much later than pubertal events  Once peak (age 14) is reached, enlargement of testes and penis is almost complete, and underarm hair appears soon after  Facial and body hair also emerges just after the peak of body growth and this gradually increases for several years  Deepening of the voice  larynx enlarges and vocal cords lengthen  this takes place at peak of growth spurt and is complete when puberty is over  Spermarche = first ejaculation (age 13.5)  happens when penis is growing and prostate gland and seminal vesicles enlarge  Typically finish sexual maturation by age 15.5  Individual Differences in Pubertal Growth  Heredity contributes to timing of puberty  Identical twins reach menarche around the same time(1-2 months apart)  Fraternal twins reach menarche close to 12 months apart  Nutrition and exercise contribute to timing of puberty  Girls: rise in body weight and fat may trigger sexual maturation  Fat cells release a protein called leptin, and leptin signals the brain that the girl’s energy stores are sufficient for puberty  this can very well be the reason why breast and pubic hair growth and menarche occur earlier for heavier (or obese) girls.  For girls who begin serious athletic training at a young age or eat very little, experience later puberty  In Africa, and other poverty stricken areas, menarche is delayed (to age 14-16) due to malnutrition and diseases  In developing countries, girls from high-income homes reach menarche 6-18 months earlier than those living in opposite circumstances  Family experiences also contribute to the timing of puberty  Theory suggests that humans have evolved to be sensitive to the emotional quality of their childhood environments  When a child’s safety is at risk, they tend to reproduce early  Girls exposed to family conflict reach menarche EARLY  Girls who are apart of close/warm family ties reach menarche LATE  Secular trend = generational change  in pubertal timing, lends added support to the role of physical well-being in pubertal development  in industrialized nations, age of menarche has declined about 3-4 month per decade  this is b/c nutrition, health care, sanitation ...etc. improved!  This has its benefits, but some fear that girls who reach sexual maturity early like at age 10 or 11 will experience unfavourable pressure or involvements like sexual activity  Boys have reached puberty earlier (pg 288-299)  The Psychological Impact of Pubertal Effects  Research suggests that adol’s self-image, mood, and interaction with peers and parents are all affected by pubertal change  Reactions to Pubertal Changes:  Today if a girl gets her period, it’s associated with a feeling of surprise  Girls with no previous knowledge of menarche will find it shocking and disturbing  Today most girls are informed about menarche  From their mothers  Sometimes from their fathers  this has a really positive effect on girls b/c this reflects a family atmosphere that is accepting of physical and sexual matters  Boys’ response to spermarche is very mixed  Boys knows about ejaculation ahead of time  Boys still say however, that no one spoke to them before puberty about physical changes  Boys get info from their own reading  Boys typically have their first ejaculation before they expect it  unprepared  Girls will often tell their friends about their period, but boys don’t really tell their friends about spermarche  Girls get more social support for the physical changes of puberty than boys  Cultural context affects the experience of puberty  Tribal societies celebrate its onset with an initiation ceremony  marks change in privilege and responsibility  Young people know that reaching puberty is valued in their culture  Western societies: barely any recognition of movement from childhood to adolvor from adol to adulthood  this makes the transition into adulthood more confusing  Judaism: Bar/Bat mitzvah  Hispanic: quinceanera  Rather in western societies, we get partial adult status at different ages:  Age for employment  Age for driving  Leaving high school  Voting  Drinking  Pubertal Change, Emotion, and Social Behaviour  Adolescent Moodiness  Higher pubertal hormone levels are linked to greater moodiness  but this relationship isn’t strong  The reason why adol seem to be more moody than children or adults is b/c adol have a greater amount of negative life events: difficulties with parents, disciplinary actions at school, breaking up with bf/gf  Teenagers tend to react to the above situations with greater emotion than children  Parent-Child Relationships  Puberty is related to parent-child conflict  North American and Europeans have more conflict with parents as appose to Asians and Hispanics whose traditions are to respect parental authority  Adol will tend to spend less time with their family, have their bedroom door closed  b/c an adol cannot really leave their family even though they want to, they tend to leave in a different way: psychological distancing  and adol’s new power of reasoning contributes to a rise in family tension  parent-child arguments tend to focus on day-to-day matters (driving, fating partners, curfews...etc  all the parent is really trying to do here is protect their teens from harm  parent-daughter conflict are more intense than parent-son conflict  parent make more restrictions on girls  at the end of the day, parents and their teens agree on important values like education and honesty  Pubertal Timing  2 main factors: 1) matching cultural ideals of physical attractiveness, 2) fitting in physically with peers  Early maturing for boys  relaxed, independent, physically attractive  Late maturing for boys  anxious, attention seeking  Early maturing for girls  unpopular, withdrawn, lacking self-confidence, few leaderships positions, more involved in deviant behaviour, getting drunk, early sexual activity, poor achievements in school  Late maturing for girls physically attractive, sociable, leaders at school  The Role of physical attractiveness:  Body image = conception of and attitude toward one’s physical appearance  Affects teens self-esteem and psychological well-being  The Importance of fitting in with peers  adols feel more comfortable around peers who match their own level of biological maturity  early maturing adols seek out older companions  can be dangerous!  Early maturing show signs of distress and declines in academic performance  Long Term Consequences  Early maturing girls are prone to lasting difficulties  Such as: impaired social relationships  Many of these girls enter adol with emotional and social difficulties  Stress of puberty interferes with school performance, and lead to bad peer pressures  Early maturing boys show NO lasting difficulties  Health Issues  Nutritional Needs  Puberty leads to an increase in food intake  Boys during puberty require 2700 calories a day and much more protein  Girls require 2200 calories and less protein than boys  Adol tend to skip breakfast, eat on the run  Frequency of family meals is associated with healthy eating teens  Families with adol tend to eat less meals together   Eating Disorders  Girls who reach puberty early are not happy with how their body looks  Anorexia Nervosa  Eating disorder where one starves himself b/c of a fear of getting fat  Cases have increased due to society praising thinness  EQUALLY common in all SES groups  Asian-Americans, Hispanic-Americans, and Caucasian-American are more likely to be anorexic than African-American girls  Only a small percent of anorexia is male (most gay or bisexual)  Anorexic people exercise strenuously  Menarche does not occur or menstrual cycles stop  Signs of someone anorexic: pale, brittle discolored nails, fine dark hairs all over the body, extreme sensitivity to the cold  Heart muscle can shrink and kidney can fail, irreversible brain damage, loss of bone mass  More common in identical twins than in fraternal twins  genetic influence  Anorexics have extremely high standards for their own behaviour and performance, are responsible, and are well-behaved  Father of an anorexic girl is emotionally distant  Anorexic girls rebel distantly instead of openly  They typically deny ay problem that exists  Common treatments: family therapy, medication, or neurotransmitter imbalances  Only half recover fully  Bulimia Nervosa  Eating disorder in which young people (mainly girls) engage in strict dieting and excessive exercise accompanied by binge eating, often followed by deliberate vomiting and purging with laxatives  Erodes enamel of teeth  Can cause life threatening damage to the throat or stomach  More common than anorexia  In twin studies, it showed that bulimia is also hereditary  Overweight and early puberty increase the risk  Some are perfectionists while some lack self
More Less

Related notes for Health Sciences 2700A/B

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.