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Test 2- Psycho Motor Kin 1080B

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Kinesiology 1080A/B
Matthew Heath

Psycho-Motor Movement 2 Friday February 3 2012 Sir Francis Dalton – british philosopher, mathematician – interested in the representation of numbers – people who write numbers differently = higher creativity – the spacial numerical association of response codes (the SNARC effect, phenomenon) – People stare at a screen, number flashes on R/L- when numbers like 1 or 2 on the left of the fixation cross have a shorter reaction time than an 8 or a 9 in the same location – If an 8 or a 9 is on the right there is shorter reaction times than 1 or 2 – shows that cognition and movement are strongly linked to one another (robust SNARC effect with people who read R to L) Concussions 1. CDC estimates between 50,000 and 300,000 concussion in sports/year 2. Simple- limit players participation during symptomatic period, but no intervention required during the recovery period- athlete typically returns to play without further problem(s) Complex- continued symptoms during recovery period (usually associated with episode of loss of consciousness-anecdotal evidence) 3. In NCAAfootball an athlete with previous concussion is 5.8x more likely to sustain multiple concussions 4. Athletes with multiple concussions recover much slower than athletes who have experiences a single concussions 5. Athletes with multiple concussions show poorer memory recall than athletes with a single concussion when tested two days post concussions 6. Athletes with multiple concussion show performance that is 7.7x worse than single concussion athletes in a memory recall test and cognitive tests Event Related Brain Potentials- measures of cognitive processing (activity in the brain) 1. ERPS are averaged electrical brain responses to time-locked stimuli 2. N2pc= ERP component related to the focusing of visuospatial attention (200ms after stimulus presentation) 3. P300= measure of stimulus classification processing speed (how fast can you process and classify a stimulus?) 9 months after their last concussion. The reduction in the P300 was by far the most in the multiple concussed athletes. They have a deficit in processing and classifying stimuli. – Equivalent neuropsychological test profiles of non-concussed, concussed, and multiple concussed athletes – no difference in N2pc in non-concusses and multiple concussed athletes – Suppressed P300 activity in multiple concussed athletes – the specificity of the long-term effect of concussion provides a framework to pinpoint the cognitive system impaired in multiple concussion Motor Unit Types Fast twitch, fatigable (FF)- Fast Motor Unit – highest conduction velocity (100meters/s=found in cat) – large fibre diameter – innervate fast twitch muscle fibres Fast twitch; fatigue resistant (FR) – medium conduction velocity (60m/s) – medium fibre diameter – innervate fast and/or slow titch muscle fibres – can fire long after FF stop firing** Slow twitch, fatigue resistant (SR)- Slow Motor Unit – slow conduction velocity (40m/s) – small fibre diameter – innervate slow twitch muscle fibres Motor Unit and Muscle Fibre Types inAthletes Sprinter: 80% fast and 20% slow mu Marathoner: 20% fast and 80% slow mu Average Person: 50% mu and 50% slow mu Couch potato: 60% fast and 40% slow mu Spinal Injury: 96% fast and 4% slow mu Can training alter mu and muscle fibre types?- sport specific training The Henneman Principle (Size Principle) MU Recruitment: Size Principle (smallest to largest) The recruitment of mu within a muscle proceeds from small mu to large ones (presents muscle from fatiguing too quickly) – low force contraction, nearly al force produced by slowest motor units – if contraction force increased, larger motor neurons start to fire – at the highest levels of force (MVC- maximal voluntary contraction) – the largest motor units are recruited What mu type do you think declines with age? Reduction in fast fatiguable motor units and therefore fast twitch muscle fibres – large alpha motor units that send impulses to muscles very fast – cant help as easily if you fall down, thats why they are at in increased risk for falling Extrageniculate Pathway (fast)= Superior Colliculous Topic #3 The Scientific Method Goals of Science Understand- describe, explain, predict Empiricism Verification by observation- proposals are subjected to a test - perform an experiment and obtain data Experiment- tool for determining nature of relationship between variables – confirm or disconfirm a hypothesis – manipulate and observe the effects of a variable on another variable – manipulate type of stimulus (visual or auditory) – observe effects of stimulus on reaction time Independent Variable- variable that is manipulated by the experimenter - observe effects of independent variable on dependent variable Dependent Variable- variable that is measured - change in dependent variable is assumed to be a result of change in independent variable Reaction time study: Single IV (2 levels associated)= visual signal light vs auditory signal buzzer DV= reaction time (measuring) Research Studies (Lab #2) What are the IV and DV variables? How do they relate to the concepts of interest? What are the (expected) results? What are the interpretations/conclusions? Topic #4- Classifying and Identifying Motor Skills Motor Skills can be “classified” using 3 schemes: 1. Task Organization 2. Motor and Cognitive Elements 3. Level of Environmental Predictability Allow practitioners to distinguish tasks from one another - what tasks should be emphasized in the early and/or latter stages of motor skill acquisition? 1. Task Organization (a continuum) Discrete Skill: a skill that is organized such that the action is usually brief and has a well-defined beginning and end (golf swing, sit-to-stand) Serial Skill: a type of skill characterized by serial discrete actions connected together in a sequence - often the order of the actions is critical to performance success, combo of discrete skills (playing piano, assembly-line tasks, driving stick-shift) Continuous Skill: a skill that unfolds without a recognizable beginning or end, in an ongoing and often repetitive fashion (swimming, steering a car) 2. Motor and Cognitive Elements (continuum) Motor Skill: primary determinant of movement success is the quality of the movement Cognitive Skill: primary determinant of success if the quality of the performers decision making The motor/cognitive continuum Motor Skills Motor/Cognitive Skills Cognitive Skills High-jumping, weight lifting Quarterbacking, negotiating a - chess, cooking a meal, coach a busy hallway sport During skill learning we generally progress from cognitive to motor. Experts do not need a lot of cognition, mostly motor. 3. Level of Environmental Predictability Open Skill: skill performed in an unpredictable or in motion environment, requiring individuals to adopt their movement in response to the dynamic properties of their environment Closed Skill: skill performed in an environment that is predictable or stationary and that allows individuals to plan their movements in advanced The open/closed continuum Closed Skills Semi-Predictable Open Skills Bowling, brushing teeth, writing, Steering a car, fielding a Hockey, returning a punt, gymnastics bouncing ball catching a butterfly th Feb 13 and 29 Topic #6 Information Processing: 3-StageApproach The simplified information-processing model Input (auditory, visual etc)—The Human---Output BF Skinner- interested in the relationship between input and output (radical behaviourism-psych) 3-Stage Model of Information Processing Input—Stimulus Identification—Response Selection—Response Programming—Output – process similar to a computer – stages of information processing are serial and discrete – all information processed that has to be identified has to be done in stimulus identification phase before it can move to response selection Donders, 1868 Input—Stimulus Identification—Response Selection—Response Programming---Output A. Stimulus Identification Stage: 1. Signal Detection - sensory information attained from external sources is detected and transformed into neurological signals - most cases occurs without conscious awareness - low level property (relies on subcortical structures to identify**) Response: Yes Response: No Stimulus Present Hit Miss Stimulus Absent FalseAlarm Correct Rejection Using signal detection theory to model changes in serial learning of radiological image interpretation 2. Pattern Recognition - extracting patterns or features from environmental stimuli for use in latter stages of information processing - can be natural or trained phenomenon - neurological signals are mapped onto a meaningful event (this baseball is approaching my face at a high rate of speed) - high level of property, top down cortical control* - deGroot 1946- Chess players (Grand Masters vs Novices) - Chase and Simon 1973- Added random condition – training pattern recognition can optimize performance in temporally demanding sports and occupations – training pattern recognition can enhance game day or on field decisions and performance An expert = 10 years or 10,000 hours of practicing a sport. Has to be specific, “deliberate practice” isn’t enjoyable, cognitively demanding, boring practice. Why do kids born in the first Q bigger stronger and more mature? = older, they become better and enjoy the sport more and are able to devote a lot of practice, as a kid you enjoy being good at something, better coaching Stimulus ResponseAlternatives (SRA) - increasing the number of alternatives relevant to a response increases the time required to process and select an appropriate response - reaction increases as the # of SR alternatives increases B. Response Selection Stage – Once stimulus is identified, the appropriate action must be selected (ex. to brake or swerve to avoid a parked car”) Factors Influencing Response Selection 1. # of Stimulus ResponseAlternatives 2. Stimulus Compatibility Hicks/Hymen Law (1952) Task- Choice reaction time task Results- RT increased by 150ms every time the S-R alternatives doubled - thus, relationship between choice RT and the logarithm of the S-R alternatives is linear Equation for a straight line: Y= a + b (x) – This equation can be adapted to compute a RT value in a choice RT task – RT= a + b [Log2 (N)] --- a and b are empirical constants = 212 + 153 = 671 (8 squares?**) What is a Log to the base of 2? b= change in RT associated with a one unit change in bits of information a= Y intercept N= number of stimulus response alternatives **test question 16= 4, 4=2, 8=3 Information “Bit”- the amount of information required to reduce uncertainty by half Stimulus Response Compatibility – extent to which stimulus and response are associated in a natural way – Subjects are faster and make fewer errors for a spatially compatible (A) as opposed to an incompatible B environment – The brain likes direct spatial relations, needs less high level control in order to perform the task – Ergonomics, spatial compatibility with stimulus and response (ex. always counter clockwise to shut off with all buttons) World Colour Compatibility (Stroop Effect) - incompatible mapping between word meaning and a printed work colour increased RT and errors (generally one or the other, both could) Saccade- REM that directs fovea to target of interest Pro-saccade- when you look directly at the location of the flashed target object, most well developed and learned task that we as humans perform, highly over-learned task (180ms) Anti-saccade- fixation point, look at opposite location of the flashed target object, very difficult task to perform because we do so many pro per day, it is hard to inhibit self from not doing pro, inhibit stimulus driven response, high level of cortical resources needed to do this (320ms) Overlap paradigm- always on Gap paradigm- fixation cross shuts off 200ms before onset target, during this gap time pro reaction times get faster, anti get faster but they are prone to a lot more errors, fixation cross influences the speed and the accuracy - onset of the fixation cross stimulates neurons within brainstem, they inhibit movement, allow eye to lock on to target, when they are stimulated they inhibit you from making a saccadic eye movement (fixation excites omnipause neurons, takes time to overcome = longer time), presence of the fixation cross, once removed you allow people to generate these eye movements, response selection * Pro-saccade- st
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