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Final Exam Notes for Psycho-Motor Kin 1080B

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Kinesiology 1080A/B
Matthew Heath

Psycho Motor 3 MultipleAttentional Resources - Alan Badly, British Psychological (on sabbatical) - Worked at Stanford, started to love football - the more he gets into the game the worse his driving becomes - half an hour into the game he rear ends someone - we have several pools of attention, the resource is specific to what you're doing (verbal, motor, auditory processing etc) - when driving with classical music there is room left, no problem with this primary spacial skill of driving - Task 1 turns into listening to the football game, not driving - multiple pools devoted to different things (spacial, cognitive, motor activities) - you can perform at a high level unless one of the pool has its capacity exceeded** - attention is specific to a specific task you're performing Attention as a Filter- considers attention to be a fixed and undifferentiated capacity, but mediated by: 1. Arousal and Anxiety Level 2. Specific Task Demands 3. Selectivity Arousal- level of activation or excitement of the CNS varies widely from very low during sleep to very high during threat to self - level of arousal can be specific to the sport - chess= low arousal, high performance, want to be able to devote attention to broad aspects - weight lifting= - important to be able to control arousal based on situation to perform at an optimal level (chess for test) Specific Task Demands - the environment of a performer can influence capacity of attentional resources - you can flexibly modulate attention to the task you have in front of you +/- based on the task - golf= very small attentional capacity, focusing on a finite element, any small intrusion to their attentional field will limit their task performance Selectivity (he is interested in this topic) – Endogenous Orientation: conscious control, visual search,voluntary control, high level mode of attentional control-involves cortical resources – Exogenous Orientation: unconscious control, environmental stimuli (cueing), unexpected, automatically catch our attention, low level mode of control, mediated subcortically, unexpected visual stimuli lead to an excitation of neurons within your superior colliculous then it automatically orients your attention (moves your eyes to that visual stimulus), reflexive, not modifiable because its hardwired (advertisement on website) Cockpit of a Jet- cognitive ergonomics and exogenous of attention*, whats the best way to orient a pilots attention? If a missile is coming a light goes on, automatically orient your attention to the light, exogenous visual cue. Human machine interactions Jack Levitt* will be on final exam - interested in how kids (young abilities) developed the ability to multi task, and what to initially emphasize to get them to high levels of performance - timed how fast from blue line to blue line - cognitive task= geometric shapes - motor task= stick handling - looked at age groups - geometric identification and stick handling affected - expertise increases as a function of age - 6 year olds showed the largest gap between conditions - gap in performance diminishes as a function of age - when individuals are in the skill development stage, focus on the primary task of skating is cognitive to the young athletes, top down, don’t want to exceed amount of attention capable of without detrimenting performance, better they get becomes less cognitive more motor, focus on fundamental aspects of performance (skating > geometric figures) Coordination andAttention - bimanual coordination: simultaneous movement of the two hands 1. Two hands seem to be “linked” together 2. Timing structure of the two hands is the same - you fall into phase, because you are unable to perform distinct coordination movement patterns at a high movement frequency, CNS only attend to information at a high frequency (speed), adopts one common temporal structure - you started moving in an anti-phase pattern (opposites, flexion/attention) you can perform these movements at a low movement frequency (1-2hz, 5 seconds or 500 ms)** phase = 3hz** - inphase= same time, speed at which you perform a movement determines the timing structure ** - split brain can do the antiphase no problem, don’t fall into inphase movement pattern James Gibson- how objects provide us with information of what we can do with them, “direct perceptions”, information processing says you have to learn before using an object appropriately, gibson says direct perception** William Warren 1984- how direct perception influences our actions, your leg length determines your direct perception of if you can walk up the stairs Coordination and attention – they have different spatial structures, when drawing them they have different temporal structure, when you do it together you are disrupting the temporal structure. You want to adopt the same temporal structure. The CNS likes a single temporal structure when moving at reasonably high frequency Neural Correlates of Focuses vs LapsedAttention: Why you put Cheerios in the fridge and the milk in the cupboard, do an untended action Daniel Weissmann- 3 regions of the brain which are responsible for high attentional control (right hemisphere) 1. Right IFG (Inferior Frontal Gyrus)- stimulus triggered orientation of attention 2. RightACC (Anterior Cingulate Cortex)- conflict resolution, resolving a conflict between 2 different stimuli 3. Right MFG (Medial Frontal Gyrus)- maintaining task goals in working memory - created an experimental technique that causes people to have these lapses in attention - found that when people had lapses in attention the right IFG,ACC and MFG had very low levels of activation - on tasks where people did really well these areas were robustly/strongly activated - decreases in these areas= more prone to lapses in attention - right IFG was highly active= associated with a highly active occipital cortex (initial visual processing, IFG tells OC how sensitive it should be to processing incoming visual stimuli) - one of the first studies to talk about back projections- most studies (traditional) say they go from posterior-frontal regions of the brain- information can flow backwards- IFG to occipital (frontal to sensory systems), highly cognitively involved tells sensory system to take in more infor Important Findings- 1. attentional networks that mediate high level processes that prevent you from having lapses 2. recurrent backward projections (from frontal to more posterior sensory related systems) CNS can only attend to so many informations at a high frequency- CNS likes to have one temporal structure and this is disrupted when they’re moving at a high speed, CNS adopted 1 common temporal structure (from anti-phase to in-phase) Topic #8 Memory Systems Memory: the capacity of individuals to retain and utilize information in various ways for various periods of time 1. Acquisition- encoding, strengthening, learning 2. Retention- once its in your LT memory it is there, locked away 3. Retrieval- once information is in your LT it will be there for good, but without practicing further you cant appropriately retrieve the information because the neuro-pathways aren't as developed that don’t allow you to efficiently access that information Comprised of 3 Systems: 1) Short-term sensory store (STSS)- Sperling 1960, no one thought it existed until him- basic and initial memory system - brief duration - large capacity (some say unlimited) - verdical (in nature) - pre-categorical- not able to attach any abstract representation/meaning to the information that is in your STSS, don’t know the underlying meaning of things stored • Whole Report Technique- have to recall all the letters, letters were briefly flashed (40 ms) in a matrix, 0% recall accuracy • Partial Report Technique (Sperling)- at or after the stimulus/matrix was flashed they sounded a h, m or l tone (h=only top, m=only bottom), only subset or one row associated were asked for - on the x-axis it is a delay between the onset of the matrix and the onset of the auditory tone, some it came on at the same time or right after. The delay is used to see how long information can be reliably retained in your STSS. Longer delay = less accurate. - What happens when the tone and matrix overlap each other?Almost 100% recall accuracy - Information can be reliably retained for 300 ms. 300ms is ~2 words, 50% recall accuracy, after 300ms it is unreliable Findings: 1. Existence of the STSS 2. Temporal Duration- information can be reliably retained for approximately 300ms 3. Very large/Unlimited Capacity- can access anything as long as they do it quickly - STSS (like a whiteboard, information cannot overlap, once old information is erased new information takes over) Ellipse, takes up the same spacial position as the D and F, therefore not able to recall, 0% recall accuracy, any new information erases old information from STSS (veridical) • 2 Study- a row contained either all letters or all numbers, immediately after or before 150ms, were asked to recall a row that only contained #s or letters. Recall accuracy was essentially 0%. They are given a specific cue, but it was categorial in nature, that is something that the STSS is unable to do. Information is maintained as pre-categorical, no abstract representation in STSS. 2) Short-term (STM/working memory) - buffer between STSS and long-term memory - brief duration - limited capacity (7 +/- 2 bits of information) - categorical - not veridical Brown-Peterson Task- how long information can persist in STM without the aid of rehearsal • Try to remember 3 letters (ex. XJC), when given a number (ex 307), start counting backward in 3's (307, 304, 301)- interference task, it prevents “rehearsal” of information • When the Write! text appears, write down the letters you remember, this has to be done at least several times to obtain the effect • the results typically show very low memory performance, the reason is that rehearsal of the letters ie prevented by the task counting task • 0 delay=97% accuracy, curved linear decrease as a function of delay, at around 3s of delay there is a 50% recall accuracy, information in STM reliably persists for 3s • recall accuracy decreases as a function of increasing trials • 4 trial- Presented 3 #s instead of 3 letters, the cognitive nature of the stimuli differs between the control and experimental, control group=semantic nature of the stimuli is the same, experimental group= #s not letters, switching from letters to #s in the 4 trial gives the release of Proactive Interference Proactive Interference- the forgetting of currently learned material produced by interference from previously learned material, things you previously learned hinders your ability to learn new information Retroactive Interference- process in which an event learned during a retention interval leads to forgetting of a previous learned event Westwood et al 2003 (Roy+Heath) how long visual information can persist in memory to support accurate movements – 4 conditions: 1- Open Loop Condition- see a target, get an auditory tone and as soon as they start moving the goggles fog up and you cant see, vision is occluded at movement onset) 2- Brief delay 3- 500ms 4- 2000ms (lost vision but had to wait after they lost their vision for the last 3 conditions, have to reach to where they remember the target to be) – there is essentially no appreciable period of time in which visual information persists to support motor movement – open vs brief delay condition- significant accumulation in error – visual memory is not accurately retained for any appreciable period of time – information decay is very fast – vision during planning but not during execution phase, tone and fog occur simultaneously Visual information doesn't provide an accurate target representation for any period of visual delay Chapman et all 2000 – tested how long information pertaining to the location of the target defined proprioceptively can be used to guide movement – no vision at all, robot moved arm to target, define target location proprioceptively (muscle stretch) – after arm brought back from robot, they had delays like Westwood – target position is defined proprioceptively and not visually – accuracy of pointing movements was the same regardless if they reached right away or had a 2000ms. Proprioceptive information didn’t decay like the visual information in Westwood study - Proprioceptive information provides an accurate estimate or target location for up to 2,000ms of delay Visual information decays very quickly and provides an unstable representation of target location – location of response mediated via extrinsic coordinates (outside of body, maintained by continuous visual contact with target object) Proprioceptive information decays more slowly – location of response mediated via intrinsic coordinates (you relative to the target, defined by body structure ie arm) maintain with greater temporal capacity Typical Forgetting Curve- Ebinghaus 1885 (cigars) – figure shows the reduction in savings across increasing retention intervals, time between original learning and relearning – Immediate Recall=100%, 20 minutes= 60%, 1 hour=45%, 9 hours=40% (dramatic loss) – plateaus from 1-30 days= ~20% (highly cognitive information stays) – to prevent it; structure the movement and learning environment so they can perform the skill, perform every hour or so= real benefit Typical Memory Recall Curve – word lists used for concussion, doesn't show recency affect – primacy effect- occurs due to rehearsal, able to rehearse first few, when you rehearse you can maintain it in your STM – recency effect- haven’t had sufficient time to decay from STM, recall last words concussion don’t show this – frontal lobe impairment or concussions generally do not show primacy/recency effects, rapid deterioration of info from their STM, overt rehearsal strategies, so cognitively demanding that it will bring up concussion like symptoms State Dependent Memory: 1. Learned list words on pool deck 2. Learned in scuba gear under water Half were transferred to the opposite position. Goal: see if one in environment is facilitated when you are asked to facilitate that information in the same or different environment People who learned in water best recalled when they were in water, same with pool deck. Performance was bad from water to deck. (and vice versa). State that you're in influences how well you recall information. Adrenaline- elements studying during an induced adrenaline have better recall accuracy, facilitated neurogenesis, LT memories. Hard to put in a state where you get in a state in continued adrenaline. Exercise while you study concurrently, significantly improve recall accuracy Sleep and Memory Consolidation – sleep prevents forgetting and makes memories resistant to pro- and retroactive interference – ST to LT memory = consolidation – especially if sleep closely follows learning – sleep allows for hippocampus-neocortical dialogue and information transferred with sleep hippocampus and neocortex synchronize their activity – hippo and neo neurons become in sync, same frequencies, shares information that helps develop and consolidate new memories Sleep and Memory Types – slow-wave-sleep (SWS) predominates the first half of the sleep cycle – random/rapid eye movement (REM) sleep predominates the second of the sleep cycle, procedural or motor memories – SWS important for consolidating explicit/cognitive memories (studying for phys exam) – REM sleep important for consolidating implicit memories (studying for practical exam) – use EEG to wake up, prevent them from falling into SWS, get same total amount of sleep, always show a decrease in recall accuracy – if you disrupt REM it has a large impairment in motor or procedural memories 3) Long Term (LTM) – items practiced or rehearsed access LTM – has limitless capacity – composed of 3 subsystem 1. Procedural Memory • stores knowledge of “how to do” a skill or activity, usually motor • operate on more of a unconscious level, mediated within the cerebellum (sub-cortical structure) • we know “how to do” something, but not able to verbally describe it well (tie shoelace, swim) 2. Semantic Memory • general knowledge about the world developed from many experiences, factual and conceptual (date Columbus discovered America) • have to be aware in order to retrieve information, intensive cortical activation 3. Episodic Memory • knowledge about personally experienced events, cognitive- mediated via intensive cortical structures, most robust, very difficult to forget, refractory, bad for people with PTSD suffer (where we were when 9/11 happened, Princess Diana) nd Fitts and Posners Model of Learning April 2 ) 3 Stages: Cognitive Stage - a lot of overt and top down control - have to be explicitly aware of what you are doing - no idea why you made error or how can you fix it • high degree of cognitive activity • attentional demands high, limited to movement production • movements lack synchronization and appear choppy and deliberate • numerous errors, typically gross in nature • lacks capability to determine cause of errors or correct them Associative Stage • more consistent • decreased attentional demands for movement production • fewer, less gross errors (obvious) • better at detecting cause of errors • begin to develop appropriate error correction strategies - know they made an error, still not clear on how to correct - at this stage, f and p said they adopted a feedforward strategy: by using this the performer can then predict when they make an error, can modify their movement Autonomous Stage - can use attentional resources for other parts - know they made a mistake and why, they can self-correct themselves • highest level of proficiency • not all learners will reach this stage • attention reallocated to strategic decision-making • consistent, confident • make few errors and can generally detect and correct those errors that do occur Increasing LTM potential Increase movement meaningfulness- when learning a new motor skill body-parts are coordinated in new ways, therefore movements are abstract and of little meaningfulness A. Use of Motor Imagery • instead of a complex verbal instruction • movement can be rehearsed through mental imagery • people in the autonomous stage really benefit from this B. Verbal Label • provide a verbal label to the movement (eg release football at the 11:30 position) • label-movement association enhances correct recall of the movement • enhances interaction with the correct recall of movement in actual performance* • strong benefit in the cognitive stage of learning C. Intention to Remember • when provided cues as to what information is to-be-recalled, emphasis • rehearsal of to-be-recalled information improves integration into LTM • cognitive stage is beneficial, wont work for autonomous stage • eg. 2 test in this class will involve the recall of LTM subsystems D. Subjective Organization • grouping info into smaller units • applies for all 3 stages • eg learning a long dance routine of 25 minutes is facilitate by learning routine in increments of 5 minutes Contextual Interference- Variability of Practice – acquisition of a new motor skill – they're practicing a blocked or random movement environment – refers to the use of a training schedule that includes frequent changes of task so that the performer is constantly confronting novel instantiations of the to-be-learned information Blocked: get better as a function of trials/practice (positive correlation), better performance during practice (skill development) Random: get better, but not nearly as good during practice, less steep (positive correlation) During Retention Test (48 hours later)- Random is better than blocked, always will outperform. Random helps consolidate information to your LTM. When you switch from task to task you restructure your learning environment, cognitively engaged. Blocked= autopilot. DoneApril 2 nd Clive- frontal lobe impairment, temporal lobe completely gone on the left, a bit on the right, dense form of amnesia, difficult time controlling emotions (emotional lability), difficulty consolidating semantic and episodic memories, cant formulate new LT semantic or episodic memories but can learn procedural memories (new motor skill- practice piano, remember without reading music using the cerebellum- he has no damage there) Explicit= semantic or episodic memory, need to have conscious control in order to formulate memory, cortical brain structures- temporal, hippocampus Implicit= memory for a motor skill, don’t need to be consciously aware, subcortical structures- cerebellum HM- Henry Malaison, USA – first person for “how brain damage can impact memory” – in 1950s, 10 years old fell off bike, developed epilepsy then formed to intractable form – damage to temporal and hippocampus, seizures formed there – dense form of amnesia after surgery, couldn’t formulate new LTM – Brenda Millner (Canadian, neuropsychologist)- studied his memory impairments, first to find a dissociation between explicit and implicit info and then link to different brain structure systematic study, tested HM on simple motor tasks: – Mirror Tracing Task- show a picture of a star, trace by looking at his hand through a mirror, initially he was bad, overtime he became very good at this task, certain tasks he was better than age matched individuals without a brain impairment – HM had complete inability to formulate new LT explicit (semantic+episodic) memories (1 min later info was lost) Closed-Loop Motor Control Topic #9 Primate Visual System Eye- most immediate access to CNS Ventral Visual Pathway- use vision to make perceptual judgments →visual information enters retina (photoreceptive at back of the eye) →goes to different places depending how you will use the information,→ LGN- lateral geniculate nucleus= seeing part of the thalamus (subcortical) relays information directly (cortically) to the PVC → information goes to different areas depending what you are using it for, extra striate visual areas (perceptual judgment- a conscious identification of what an object is) → maps onto the Inferotemporal Cortex Dorsal Visual Pathway- vision to control action, used for vision and action interfaces, mediated when we have a static cue we are interacting with, “reach out and grab and object” begins at V1 → through extra striated regions → maps onto the PPC Extrageniculate Pathway- Don’t need to be consciously aware to process it for action, automatic, very little voluntary control, (60ms), rapidly dynamically changing stimulus: →Visual Stimulus→Retina→SC→Pulvinar Thalamus→directly to PPC PPC- sensory to motor interface, incoming sensory information to action Geniculo Striated Pathway- LGN → V1 OpticAtaxia- vision to control action Ann (AT)- inability is only when she is using peripheral vision and acting in her RVF, fine in her LVF or central, bilateral damage to PPC Damage to dorsal visual pathway=optic ataxia -AT: impaired visuomotor processing - stroke to the posterior parietal cortex (dorsal stream) severe case of optic ataxia Double Step Paradigm- pointing task, people eyes are tracked, eyes lock on the target first (saccadic- fast and ballistic) movement 35ms, target moves a small jump to R L when they are at saccadic suppression, cannot perceive the target jump, move limb to the jumped target location, don’t need to be consciously aware, when mapped to the PPC it goes through the extrageniculate pathway, PPC=automatic pilot, uses visual information to modify an ongoing movement, no PPC=no automatic corrections OpticAtaxia with DSP-Ann will never make corrections to the target position, goes to original When eye is moving at peak velocity= saccadic suppression, unable to detect/perceive visual changes in your environment DF- impaired perceptual processing – carbon monoxide poisoning impairing inferotemporal lobe (ventral stream): deficit is a form of object/visual agnosia – initially they said she was cortically blind, 3 weeks after episode could see tiny hairs on strawberry – Mel Goodall uwo researcher – impaired with visual to perceptual judgments – she can appropriately scale her movements to the metrical sizes of the object, even though she doesn’t know the physical size or nature of the object, her visual motor system can still access that systematic – She knows what things should look like, its just when objects are in front of her she cant identify what it is, facial recognition same, but has improved a bit Test to for VisualAgnosia. Mailing/Posting Task: - you can change orientation of the slot, in the perceptual task you can tell them to orient it as if they would put it in the slot, DF has no appreciable awareness of the orientation of the slot - motor task: same thing except you have to physically put it into the slot, DF can put it in the slot almost no problem (bottom pictures), if she acts on it she can appropriately orient her hand to the slot DF- impaired perceptual processing, Lateral Occipital Cortex (LOC)- part of ventral visual pathway, in normal people it would be specifically activated when you have to perceptually identify the visual properties of an object, DF did
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