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Marchi et al. (2013) Consequences of repeated blood brain barrier disruption in football players PloS: One Study: Watched 5 footballs teams and measured total number of heads hits for the duration of a season. None of the players had a concussion but all had head hits. They measured the level of a protein, S100B. When hit, the protein leaves the Blood Brain Barrier causing an immune response and can lead to a cognitive problem in the brain. Blood-brain barrier disruption from sub-concussion leads to surge of S100B protein and an adverse immune response in the brain. Individuals with increased S100B levels showed structural changes via diffusion tensor imagery. Used Diffusion Tension Imagery (DTI) to look at brain structure.  Measures level of axon connectivity in the brain  How different parts of the pain are connected to other parts of the brain.  Individuals with head hits, they have a decrease in axon connectivity during the season, but also before and after head hits  Important because now have a blood test (check for protein) or use an imagery technique (DTI) to see if a player is ok to play. Female Soccer has the highest level of the concussions because of headers. Alan Snider- Thinking cap- put on before task and improves cognitive thoughts.  1Hz per second in the left hemisphere, turns down the left hemisphere, the right will take over. Most artistic and spatial thinking.  Would not be advocated Information Processing: 3- Stage Approach: The simplified information-processing model Most organisms get an input and then there’s an output. (Skinard) Humans use a cognitive approach because they have a brain. Input  Stimulus Identification  Response Selection  Response Programing Output Each stage is processed in a serial and discrete way.  One stage must be fully completed before moving onto subsequent stages They cannot happen in parallel (simultaneously) A. Stimulus Identification Stage: 1. Stimulus Detection:  Sensory information attained from external sources is detected and transformed into neurological signals  Neurological signals are mapped onto a meaningful event  It just happens, there is no elicit concussions o Happens beyond our control.  E.g. This baseball is approaching my face at a high rate of speed o Purely sensory based processing 2. Pattern Recognition  Extracting patterns or features from environmental stimuli for use in latter stages of info processing  Can be a natural or trained phenomenon o Can train to improve ability to detect a stimulus  E.g. Quarterback in football: Manning spends a lot of time in film room studying game situation so he can recognize patterns in the game so he can optimize a better response.  Studies show that athletes who partake in film study have a better environmental study.  Training pattern recognition can optimize performance in temporally demanding sports and occupations Training patter recognition can optimize performance in temporally demanding sports and occupations. Study: (Chase and Simon (1973)) A study of pattern recognition/ information processing Studied 3 groups in chess: 1. Chest Masters 2. Average game experience 3. Novices (newbies) Interested in memory ability. Showed quick presentation of a board with chess pieces. Told to reenact where the pieces were. If shown real scenario, chess masters had the best results and got 100 percent by the second trail. If shown fake scenario, chess masters performed worse than the other two groups.  Something specific in recalling of chess pattern that depict a real game situation. This leaves groundwork for studying pattern recognition but as well expertise. Field of Expertise (Anders Erikson): A field of study, which explains why athletes reach their full potential/expertise. Former grad student (Olaf) was one of Steve Nash’s first head coach. Olaf says that Steve would put up pylons after practice and practice for hours. Researchers found that anyone who is an expertise has devoted 10 years or/and 10 000 hours of deliberate practice to their specific domain.  Deliberate practice is cognitive demanding and effortable o Not fun but is necessary for high level skill attainment o Necessary for expertise development Study: Involves Medical Students and Physicians They showed participants X-rays of the ankle. Individuals where asked to make a diagnosis based on the X-Ray. One group was 4 year Medical Student. Other was a bored radiologist who has spent over 10 years in the domain. Y-axis how accurate they were X-axis how many trails. Medical Students did not do a good job. Radiologist killed it. They made accurate diagnosis first time and kept it constant. They were able to diagnose instantly, were Medical Students had to think If you go to the ER, make sure it’s not a medical student; make sure it’s a radiologist or at least the attending physician. Make sure they are at a level of an expertise. Study (Janos Stark): Interested in any asymmetries with the month someone was born and if it influenced expertise. Looked into elite hockey players in Canada and broke them up in to quartiles (Jan-March, etc..) Look at players from OHL and NHL to people in house league. Separate study did the same idea with Soccer players in Europe. Conclusion: Individuals born in the first quartile, but as well in the second quartile are more predominant in the higher leagues. Reason: When two kids playing at the same age; the one in January will be bigger and stronger than the one born in December. As a result of being naturally better because of age, they will gain higher amounts of confidence and attention, resulting in that player having a better chance than someone else. Coaches will devote more time and attention to their athletes. B. Response Selection o Most well studied stage o Takes a lot of processing in the frontal cortex= cognitively complex stage Once stimulus is identified, the appropriate action must be selected E.g. “to brake or swerve to avoid a parked car” Factors influencing response selection: 1. Number of Stimulus Response Alternatives Increasing the number of alternatives relevant to a response increases the time required to process and select an appropriate response. When you go from a situation with two stimuli to four stimuli. Hick’s Law (Hick and Hyman Same study with same result but Hick summited it earlier) Task: Choice reaction time task Results: RT increased by 150ms every time the S-R alternatives doubled Thus, relationship between choice RT and the logarithm of the S-R alternatives is linear. For reaction time a linear reaction time as a function of increasing bits.  Bit= index of information  As bit increase, you have to increase information.  Bit= how much information is being processed. Equation for a straight a line y=a+bx  This equation can be adapted to compute an RT value in a choice RT task.  Choice RT= a+b[log(base2)(N)] N=stimulus alternatives o Important because if someone can predict behavior by math, can become extremely useful. o Choice RT= 212+153(Log(base2)(N)) o Slope: Age specific  Young adults have a much shallower slope than older adults  Older adults have a much steeper slope.  Older adults take much longer to process information and that Most is why they have much steeper slopes. believe it’s  With processing of information its either a hardware issue or a a software issue  Hardware: neuron connection degrade which impede the combinati connection of the central nervous system (more popular on of the two theory)  Software: older adults selectively move slower and make decisions that take much more time because they always want to correct (never want to make an incorrect response) o More practiced you are in a task, the quicker they can make a decision, the shallower the slope. Slope of Hick-Hymans will be influenced by type of stimulus (effector) and what you are doing to interact with stimulus o Eyes are quicker than hands/feet 2. Stimulus Response Compatibility:  Idea brought up by Paul Fitts. o Remember as father of ergonomics Extent to which stimulus and response are associated in a natural way Made an experiment where two types of stimulus A and B. If light A turned on, on the right, will react with right hand (same with left). In stimulus B, if light turned-on on the right, will react with left hand. More important to notice amount of mistakes made by B. World-Color Compatibility (Stroop Effect) Incompatible mapping between word meaning and a printed word colour increased RT and errors. Reason why lack of compatibility between spatial:  Dorsal Lateral prefrontal cortex (DLC) has to get involved which control Top- Down cognitive control. Whenever you need to think about something and make a cognitive decision, this area of the brain has to get involved. It is very powerful and effective but the time it takes to get a response, increases Reaction Time. 3. Response Programming Stage: Following response selection, the action must be translated into appropriate muscular signals to achieve task goals Henry and Rogers (1960): o Stimulus and response alternative for the movement were held constant Task: 1. Lift finger from key following stimulus (200ms) 2. Lift finger from key and move 33cm to grasp a tennis ball (450ms) 3. Lift finger from key and move 33cm to grasp a tennis ball, then move in the opposite direction to grasp a second tennis ball (800ms) Increase complexity of movement from 1-3 as a function of increased movement sequencing Result: RT increased as a function of task complexity Reflects time necessary to prepare the movement during the response programming stage.  We pre-plan our movements o Takes longer for more complex movements Henry and Rogers show that people put together a movement plan prior to response. Before Henry and Rodgers people believed we would do things on cue, only once a stimulus is over, start planning another. Henry and Rogers started off with making a package of motor commands, which tells us how to move causing us to develop a motor program by increasing movement complexity. Attention What is attention?  "Focalization and limitation of information processing resources” (Schmidt & Wrisberg, 2005) o Both Schmidt and Wrisberg are both kinesiologists and only refers to if you are aware of it o However, you don’t have to be aware of a stimulus to attend to something o Therefore, attention and consciousness are not the same thing  We can attend and response to stimulus if it reflects an unexpected and readily change to our environment. Dynamic and unexpected changes affects our neurons in the Colliculus causing our eyes to be put towards the stimulus  When it happens gradually, we will not attend to the change. Inattention blindness: Told to focus only on kids passing a ball, count how many passes  When the gorilla passes through you do not notice it. Change blindness: Picture with rocks  Grass gradually changes into rock  Didn’t notice it Study: Nicer  Wanted to see if attention and consciousness are linked  Presented students with 100 words and 25 of the specific words were paired with mild electrical stimulus. (Invasive stimulus)  He did the study in the fall and brought them back in the spring.  When he did the experiment, 100 words were said and 75 were new with the same 25 that they were shocked with.  He measured Galvanic skin response measures activation in autonomic nervous system  occurs below the level of consciousness  The 25 words that were paired with the electrical stimulus had high GSR.  Very clear and specific evidence that consciousness and evidence are not tied together. Nicer provides an elegant example of attentional processing without awareness  Attention could be a conscious or subconscious process Attention as a Single Response: Speaking to someone in a car allows you to speak with less attentional demand than when there is a cellphone involved. Processing Resources:  Limited processing resource  Limited capacity/ supply o Only you exceed resources, get a decrement in performance  2 tasks/ processing activities can be performed if their attention demands do not exceed resource capacity  Attention supply= limited capacity There has been no direct difference in accident rates/attentional control as a function of using a handheld vs. hands-free device Hands-free Cellphones: Research has shown that drivers are at less risk of getting into an accident when the speakers are projected towards you as opposed to speakers on the side/back Q: How does speaking to a passenger differ form speaking on a hands-free cell phone? A: Both yourself and passenger are in the SAME environment  If adult passenger= active participants o Knows when to talk/tone it down o Knows when your busy dealing with traffics vs. when its easy to listen  Adult with kids in car are at higher risks of accidents o Little kids cant be active participants o Usually very distracting  Unaware of surroundings, don’t know when to tone it down Attention for Control: When is our attentional spacing limiting? Information Processing:  Limited capacity processing channel  Limitations in the number of activities that can pas through channel at the same time  Serial vs. Parallel processing: o Stimulus Identification o Response Selection (3 Stage model) o Response Execution  Each stage of processing takes time Broadbent 1958: Early Model of Attention: Stimulus Identification: This is where the bottleneck takes place  Only one channel of information can be processed at this stage The limitation in our attentional system originates in the stimulus identification. When you are at a cocktail party and talking to a person, can only actually hear the person talking to. You can hear other people talking but can only understand that Barry Sanders, person you are talking to. Heaths  Flaw: In the cocktail phenomenon; if you are across the room and say favorite someone’s name they can hear it running back,  Therefore some type of multiple stimulus identification demonstrates Norman (1968): “Late Theory” psychological Believes the bottleneck occurs between stimulus identification and response refraction selection. period All conversations can be identified but it is the conversation you choose to hear that actually makes it into response selection. Combines parallel and discrete processing The Psychological refraction period: Delay in respondinging to the second of 2 stimuli presented in rapid succession Interference in selection and organization of response. e.g. Barry Sanders can fake out defenders really well because of PFR Lab: 2 stimuli. Two task are paired in close proximity. On their own both stimuli have same reaction time (both 150ms) Together  Stimulus 1 to Reaction 1 happens in same amount of time as it did on its own (150ms). However, stimulus 2 to reaction 2, stimulus 2 have been increased by 100milli seconds (250ms). In sports, in a juke, because a defended is trying to defend the first part of the juke, they get lost and cannot defend the other part of the juke because they are still trying to tend to first juke. Approx. 50ms. Between onset of stimulus 1 and stimulus 2  Optimized/ heightened PRP state Between 0-50ms= essentially no impact on RT 2  You process both as a single stimulus, so your response time would be that of a simple RT task 50ms. And beyond= able to actually perceive 2 stimuli Good Example of the Late theory of Attention: Two stimuli are being tended to in the response selection. Must tend to the first one and the second stimulus must “wait”. After the first stimulus is identified, the second can then be tended to. If 25ms, no refraction period because happens so close together If 50-1500ms, there is a refraction period because there will be a bottleneck in the processing of information.  In a sport want to juke out at 50-150ms Definitions: Parallel Processing: When you can process multiple channels concurrently. Serial Processing: a type of information processing that permits people to handle ONE stream of information at a time Double Stimulation Paradigm: 2 stimulus presented together in proximity Interstimulus Interval: Time separating 2 stimuli Psychological Refraction Period: Delay in responding to two stimuli. Attention as a Multiple Resource: Assumes that we have more than one central resource Interference between activities occurs if we draw on the same resources No interference if we draw from different resources  No interference will occur between activities as long as those activities do not occur with the same pool of resources  You can walk and talk because do not use same skills. Bradley: British resources that took a lead to move to Stanford University where he got addicted to football. He was driving along road and he was listening to music. Then the football game turned on  starts imaging what is happening in the football game  where are the players etc. Then he gets into a car accident. He therefore concluded that you have multiple pools of attention. Conclusion: Attention is mediated by distinct pools of resources  Differ for cognitive, motor, spatial tasks.  Listening to football game is high spatial, also driving is high spatial o Therefore the combination exceeds his spatial resources, which leads to an accident Proposed 3 pool of attentional resource: 1. Pool for spatial activities 2. Pool for cognitive activities 3. Pool for motor activities A contemporary theory of processing multiple attentional resources  Different parts of brain active for spatial vs. cognitive vs. motor tasks Badly’s model works extremely well even better than one stimulus Neural Correlates of Focuses verses Lapsed Attention: Why do you put the Cheerios in the fridge and the milk in the cupboard?  Action Flips  result of right IFG activation decreased Heath was going to a conference and he was on a plane. And met the guy who came up with the theory. Viesman: Participants had to find a way to make a global vs. a local decision. Global: if you make an S out of S’s, will be able to be made up into an S Local: if you look at one stimulus, local feature which is comprised of an S.  Participants had to make a congruent decision, where they had to make a global and local decision using s.  He also made an incongruent decision, where he had an S made out of Es. When you have to make a local classification of an incongruent stimulus, you make a lot of mistakes. While they made this decision, he was using fMRI. When people did the task correctly, high activation of Right IFG. When people made an incorrect decision, there was no activation in the right IFG. Conclude: Right IFG is responsible for the stimulus trigger of attention.  Right IFG directs attention to relevant stimuli in environment. Viesman: When you had to make a local decision and the local features were of an incongruent environment, they had long reaction times. When people had short reaction times the right IFG was robustly active. When people had long reaction times there was no robust activity in right IFG. In part: Viesman concluded that the right IFG was responsible for the stimulus triggers orientation. Viesman found that there were two other structures: the ACC (anterior cingulate cortex) or MFG (Middle frontal gyros). Found that the three together worked together to allow for short reaction times and therefore prevented attention slips. When participants had long reaction times or they made an error, these three actions were no active. If they are not ALL active during a task, you may have an action slip. o Action slip such as putting cornflakes in fridge ACC  conflict resolution and conflict moderating MFG  Maintaining task relevant goals in working memory. Stimulus turns on, IFG turns attention to stimulus, MFG reminds you what to do, *ACC figures out what is happening. Viesman also found that the right IFG was sending signals to the visual cortex. These signals were telling the visual cortex how excited it should get. If right IFG is not sending a lot of signals to visual cortex, not much being processed. If a lot of signals being sent, causing visual cortex to “open more” and allows more information to be processed. The visual cortex is a basic visual cortex. Prior to Viesman, people believed that the visual cortex only sent information forward however this experiment showed that projection can go from anterior to posterior sending signals to the visual cortex showing it how active it should be. o Frontal structure can send projections posterior, showing basic structure how it should function. Attentional capacity and instruction: A. Attention directed toward the initiation (and sometimes termination) or a movement is critical B. Automate elementary components of a skill prior to integrating additional movement constraints Putting Practice to the Test( Leavitt, 1979  Heath teacher and Tyke baseball coach) Wanted to learn what skills hockey players should learn first. Had to skate from blue line to blue line 6 age groups (6,8,10,11,14,19) 1. Skating Only Geometric 2. Skating only and identifying geometric figures (distractor task) shapes are a 3. Skating and stickhandling distraction and 4. Skating, stickhandling and identifying figures Skating speed was examining in each age group in each experimental takes away from condition: the attention of the task.  Dependent variable= skating speed Results: Skating impacted by stickhandling task up to 14 years of age Thus, skating= attention demanding There was increase of skating time as a function of task difficulty.  True for 6 year olds and 8 year olds. As a function of age, difference between conditions went away.  10 year olds – 19 years olds, no difference between tasks. Conclusion: Early in skill development, elements of movement that must become automated should be emphasized prior to introducing new attention demanding tasks. When training someone for a new skill, you should focus on the main task (ie. Skating) without having secondary tasks (ie. Stickhandling). Allows developing a level of automaticity. If you’re going to structure a practice environment in relation to neuroscience, if people are new to the skill should focus only on the primary skill. Best Coordination and Attention musicians, Bimanual coordination: simultaneous movement of the two hands no corpus If flex and extend figure very quickly in antiphase (in opposite), if speed increases callosum then will reach (to 3.5hz) will go into inphase (moving at same time (unison)). 1. Two hands seem to be linked together 2. Timing structure of the two hands is the same. We can adopt two different structures but as speed increase, the attentional center cannot keep up, causing only one temporal structure being able to be comprehended turns into inphase or simultaneous movement.  With no corpus callosum, do not exhibit this because information not being sent to other hemisphere and keeping everything lateralized to one side. The Gamma-V experiment: 1. With your left hand practice drawing 4-cm high gamma symbols  continue until you can do the task effectively 2. Next, draw 4 cm high letter “V”s with you right hand 3. Next, draw each figure at the same time using the individuals hands used for practice 4. Next, analyze your figures; what do they look like 5. Will extensive practice improve performance? Results: When drawing both simultaneously, the V’s and gammas will look similar  This is because of the timing of movement is disrupted o Extremely difficult to adopt 2 distinct coordination patterns with different temporal structures  In order to attend to both equally, they must have the same temporal structure otherwise, they cannot attent to both at the same time This is because of the Cerebellum (central timing mechanism)  The cerebellum is limited in attentional demand, can only adopt 1 timing property  If extrend capacity cannot handle it so everything starts to move with the same temporal pattern Note: With training/practice you can drastically enhance your abitility to adopt 2 distinct properties  Musicians can develop their CNS to adopt multiple timing channels Dr. Goodwill a disorder called faceblindling (Prosopagnosia)  Not being able to recognize faces  Can be born with it or can have a stroke that leads to it. o Can be genetic as Dr. Goodwill has a sister who has it as well. Dr. Goodwill was able to recognize the facial features of monkeys but not her own son. The patient that Heath, Mr. T, met with had a stroke in the temporal in the Fusiform Face Region (FFR). Patient cannot recognize his family, doctors etc. People who have this type of deficit never regain face recognition. Therapist wants to teach patient how to recognize the gate patterns of his family (how they walk). Humans have developed in such a way that humans have an area specialized in identifying other human’s faces. Memory System: Memory: “ The capacity of individuals to retain and utilize information in various ways for various periods of time”  How we store and process information  It has been inquired for 150 years of how we store and process this information Acquisition, retention, retrieval. Comprised of three systems: 1. Short-term sensory store memory 2. Short- term memory (working memory) 3. Long term memory Formulation of cognitive memory (mediated by distributed network of cortical structures) is distinctly different from formulation of motor memory (mediated by cerebellum) E.g. cognitive vs. motor Short-term sensory store memory (STSS)  Really crude memory system  Peripheral component of memory system  Material stored briefly as it appears in the environment  Unlimited capacity 4 Distinct characteristics: 1. Brief duration 2. Large capacity 3. Veridical o Like a snapshot of pictorial environment o “Exact” or “metrical” orientation of visual world 4. Pre- categorical o No conscious awareness of what information in the system. o Cannot categorize if number or letters.  Not at the level of distinguishing yet How can we determine the existence of a STSS?  Tests were very inconclusive. Sperling (1960): Very important in the history of understand human memory system. Originally  patients were presented by matrix and told to say it very quickly. Original reports, the researches used a whole report technique. The matrix was Important on April flashed very quickly and told recall to remember anything they saw. These tests th showed a 0% right. The patients said they couldn’t “get to it”. 28 They fixed up the experiment to a partial report technique. There was a flash of matrix. There was a high medium and low tone. The high tone  top row, the medium  middle row, the low tone  bottom row. He waited different time delays between flash and tone. (Concurrently. 150, 300, 400 etc.) Results: When the tone was presented concurrently, there was 100% recall accuracy. The STSS could reliable retain information for 150ms. Concluded that 300ms is the max amount of time that information can be reliably persistent in our memory.  This experiment is the proof that the STSS does exist.  It also shows the veridical nature of the STSS  All shows the brief duration because stimuli does not last over 300ms. o The matrix was flashed and then told what row they had to recall yet they were still able to recall the row. This shows that they could remember the order. Spiff of the experiment done by Sperling: The matrix was flash but an ellipse was flashed over the two letters. The recall percent was 0%. The ellipse essentially erases the information stored in the STSS and essentially is stored in the same spot.  The STSS is like a chalkboard; you can only hold a certain minimal amount of things. As soon as something new goes on it, the previous information is lost.  This is more proof of the veridical nature of STSS. Another experiment by Sperling: Presented to his participants a matrix with letters and numbers and told to recall the row with letters. Regardless of when they got the cue, their recall ability percent was zero. The STSS cannot categorize stimuli and as a result, ones ability to recall information is zero percent.  Proof the STSS is pre-categorical All experiments by Sperling show the evidence and the proof of the processing of information in the STSS. Short Term Memory (STM):  Buffer between STSS and long-term memory o Working memory that allows you to rehearse and consolidate information. o Ultimately let it end up in your long-term memory. 1. Brief duration o Not nearly as brief as SSTS o Max. 30 seconds 2. Limited capacity (7 +/- bits of information) o Unlike SSTS o Important because of cell phone numbers. 3. Categorical o This is a conscious and somatic memory system. You are able to recognize information in the STM and you know what category it belongs to. o If you cannot attend to it, it will not get into STM system Attention plays a pivotal role, as it: a. Allows information into STM b. Maintains information within STM Information entering STM is transcribed into an abstract representation Memory and attention are strongly intertwined. Paying attention can be seen as holding in memory Attention is required for rehearsal The longer an item is attended to (held in memory), the higher the chance it will be remembered later. You can keep information in your short-term memory forever as long as you rehearse it. If you fail to rehearse it, you will forget it. If you rehearse something over and over again, at some point it will become consolidated.  When it becomes consolidated it becomes part of your long term memory Brown-Peterson Task:  Provides indication of temporal duration associated with STM= specific to cognitive information Specially designed to examine temporal duration of short-term memory.  In particular, unrehearsed information. Participants are flashed a trigrams three letters. They are asked to do a backwards-counting task. This causes the participants to be unable to rehearse the information. Results: The results typically show very low memory performance; diminished recall accuracy as a function of delay. The reason is that rehearsal of the letters is prevented by the counting task.  Curve linear decrease in recall accuracy as a result in length of the delay. Longer delay, less accurate response.  About 3000 ms/3 seconds is the max amount of time that unrehearsed information could be persistent as reliable information. Trial Affect: In the control condition, more trials, the worse the recall accuracy. In the experimental, trials 1-3 got worse as the trials went on but on the 4 they were shown numbers and their results jumped up. Proactive interference: Pervious information inhibits the ability to perceive new information. When you change up a setting such as Brown-Peterson did on the fourth trial, it gives a break to what you were doing. Proactive vs. Retroactive Interference: Proactive Interference- the forgetting of currently learned material produced by interference from previously learned material th  In 4 trial, increase in performance because of released proactive interference: New semantic category (#s), no lonmger a build up of similar information. Retroactive Interference: process in which an event learned during a retention interval leads to forgetting of a previously learned event.  Could be applied to a student studying for a final exam. You are attempting to consolidate a lot of information. The best way to study for the exam is by studying different types of classes in a row. This allows different retroactive interference aside from learning similar topics were they will overlap. How well can we retain information for Memory Guided Movements? Given auditory stimulus tell them to win, and then lights are shut off and told to do the movement. Four line graphs: 1. Open Loop (vision alluded at auditory onset) 2. Brief delay  0 Second (at same time auditory tone goes off  lost vision of environment 3. Brief delay  500ms (preview period, lose vision amount of time before cue to move) 4. Brief delay  2000ms (preview period, lose vision amount of time before cue to move) Results: As progress from 1-4, errors increased.  There is no memory for vision that is as accurate as having vision during movement.  Visual memory for movement is never as good as during movement. How long one can retain proprioceptive information? Robotic arm that guides participants arm to a target and then back to starting position.  Throughout, they did not have vision. When the target was defined proprioceptivily, the target was able to be reached for up to 2000ms. Visual information decays very quickly and provides an unstable representation of target location.  Location of response mediated via extrinsic coordinates o Outside of the body Proprioceptive information decays more slowly  Location of response mediated via intrinsic coordinates o Reliable till up to 2000ms. These two types of memories are distinct to what you are doing with the memory.  Differs from cognitive to motor. Take home message: Proprioceptive memory can persist accurately for up to 2000 msec in order to support movement Sleep and Memory Consolidation: State dependent memory: The state that you are in when you learn information, you are better able to recall the information when in the same state.  Discovered by taking individuals by teaching people a list of words in the water and another group on the pool deck. They were asked to recall the information in both setting. He discovered that the participants remembered the list of the words better in the area they learnt it, respectively. Sleep prevents forgetting and makes memories resistant to pro- and retroactive interference  When people go to sleep right after learning something new, it allows them for better recall the following day.  The information learned will not be susceptible to pro or retroactive interference. Especially if sleep closely follows learning Sleep allows for hippocampus-neocortical dialogue and information transfer With sleep, hippocampus and neocortex synchronize their activity.  When you sleep your temporal lobe (and other areas) speaks with the hippocampus.  They essentially “talk” and facilitate recall accuracy Sleep and Motor Types: Slow-wave sleep (SWS)- represents very deep sleep. If someone was to wake you up during SWS, they would be confused as to where they are majority of sleep  Predominates most of the sleep cycle  Important for consolidating explicit cognitive memories  Longest-lasting component of sleep o If you wake up and don’t feel refreshed, then you didn’t get sufficient SWS Rand eye movement sleep (REM) predominates the second half of the sleep cycle.  Important for consolidating implicit motor memories  Studying for a practical exam SWS important for consolidation explicit memories (ie. Studying for physics exam).  Science based exams  At least 8 hours of sleep REM sleeps important for consolidation implicit memories (ie. Studying for practical exam).  Something more motor based. (Somatically)  You can get enough REM sleep if you take a nap. It is the SWS that allows for dialogue between the hippocampus and frontal lobe  REM = Motor memories  SWS= cognitive memory EEG can be used to determine if a person is in REM or SWS sleep There’s a principal known as variable of praxis. This is an important paradigm in motor skills. You are practicing your short game on a driving range. You can practice in two paradigms. 50 shots in a row to the same distance or 50 shots to different distance. If you hit the same shot over and over again for 50 trials  blocked trial. If you hit different shots  Random trial. In blocked schedule: Errors will decrease as a function of trials  Performance gets better as trials increase. In random schedule: Have some improvement as trial increase but not a lot of an improvement. However, after 24-hour retention test (after waiting 24 hours), everyone had to shoot to a distance, the distance the blocked individuals shot. Turns out, the random group had a much better performance outcome than the block, even though the block group practiced it. This is because the random group couldn’t remember and actually had to think about what they were doing. This leads to the information being more consolidated.  Variable practice leads to a long term memory benefit  Blocked practice leads to performance benefit. Forgetting (Ebbinghaus): Ebbinghaus was a German researcher interested in how much one can remember on how to roll a cigar. Note on Graph: 1. Initial dramatic loss of information 2. Plateau period= no further loss  Should structure learning to build upon the 40% that was actually retained When told right after, they could do the last without much difficulty. 20 minutes later, 40% of acquired information has been lost At 9 hours almost 60% of information lost.  Dramatic loss of information From 2 days to 30 days there isn’t a large diminishment in memory lost. You do not want to provide a learning environment where information can be lost. Important to realize: Forgetting complies very quickly after an initial learning experience The 40% that persists will last 1-30 days with no appreciable loss of information  This info= fairly durable, it persists in memory system Forgetting: There is currently no theory that explains why we forget Forgetting seems to follow rather strict rules, but even these have not been fully explored It is postulated that very well rehearsed knowledge will never be forgotten (Harry Barrack’s permastore) Harry Barrack’s ‘permastore’: You can never actually forget something you just cannot recall it. It is stored in your brain just cannot retrieve it to consciousness. Typical Memory recall curv
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