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Kinesiology 1080B Study Notes for Term Test 1 - I got over 85% on the first term test

20 Pages
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Department
Kinesiology
Course Code
Kinesiology 1080A/B
Professor
Matthew Heath

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Kinesiology 1080B Term Test 1 Material Jennifer C Topic 1: What is Psycho-Motor Learning? Plasticity: ability to learn and acquire new skills  How new neural connections are formed Phrenology: field examining brain areas that express courage, love, hope; subjective Muscle Types:  Extrafusal Muscle Fibres o Power producing muscle fibre o Causes muscles to contract  Intrafusal Muscle Fibres o Proprioceptive sense o Detects stretch in muscles o Tells CNS where limbs are located Historical Development of Motor Learning and Control – “Mother Disciplines” 1. Psychology – Shifren  Interest: how we convert information from short term memory (STM) to long term memory (LTM)  Brain is a computer for information processing  Memory is content dividing into motor or cognitive abilities  Serial & Discrete information: cerebellum holds on piece of information and processes it entirely before moving on to other information  Semantic Information: factual knowledge or information 2. Engineering – Melton & Fitts  Melton: pilots are selected based on individual abilities  Fitts*: plane accidents are due to human/machine interference o Forefather of ergonomics o Information processing influences interactions with machines  Incompatible spatial mapping: lack of compatibility between a stimulus and a response o Fitts re-engineered the cockpit of a plane; accidents declined 80%  Ergonomics: setting up a safe & efficient work environment 3. Neuroscience – Sherrington  Reciprocal Innervation: when antagonist is inactive and the agonist is active causes a muscle contraction o Spinal cord produces the contraction 1 Kinesiology 1080B Term Test 1 Material Jennifer C o Explains phenomenon such as crawling  Co-contraction: failure to suppress the antagonist when the agonist is active; muscles are locked and immobile o MRI’s diagnose these muscle disorders 4. Physical Education – Henry*  Examined whole body movements to understand complex movements  First man to appreciate the complexity of motor movements Motor Learning – internal process associated with practice or experience leading to permanent changes in performance capabilities  Learning Benefit vs. Performance Effect o Learning benefit: relatively permanent change in the CNS o Performance effect: temporary changes in the CNS Motor Control – understanding neural, physical, behavioural and cognitive aspects of movement; essentially how the brain develops motor programs  Brain makes motor programs sent to extrafusal muscle fibres creating movement Topic 2: The Nervous System Classic View of the CNS (not contemporary) Cerebral Cortex or Cerebrum "Big Boss"providing instructions to the other structures Thalamus Basal Ganglia Modifies signals Modifies signals Pons Cerebellum Modifies Signals Modifies Signals Brain Stem Signals pass through this area and are transported to the spinal cord Spinal Cord Slave system Brainstem and spinal cord aren’t responsible for modifying & sending signals! Galvani  Spinally Prepared Frog 2 Kinesiology 1080B Term Test 1 Material Jennifer C  Frog’s hind limbs twitched in response to electrical energy  Bioelectrical Energy: muscles & movement ability is a function of electricity Helmholtz  Speed of Nerve Conduction  Used a frog and isolated its muscle and motor nerves  Measured the time b/w electrical stimulation & muscle contraction  Proved bioelectrical energy occurs very quickly (1/10 of the speed of sound) Neuron Young Children: develop new neurons Older Children: create new neural pathways  Better communication; improves with frequent exposure o Increased dendritic arborization & axonal branching Myelin sheath allows for effective axonal transmission.  Neurons may have different myelin sheath thickness affecting ability to convey information to the CNS Motor Neurons (efferent): transmit motor commands down the spinal cord Sensory Neurons (afferent): transmit motor commands up & to the spinal cord  Spinal cord transmits signs to subcortical structures allowing proprioception Motor Unit: a single alpha motor neuron & the muscles it innervates *Alpha motor neuron: innervates extrafusal muscle fibres & directly communicates with the spinal cord. DISEASES of the Neuron  Lower Motor Neuron Disease or Alpha Motor Neuron Disease: damage to cell body and axonal terminals  Upper Motor Neuron Disease: damage within the cerebral cortex neurons  Nerve disease: influences amplitude of conduction, alpha motor neurons cannot depolarize; difficulty moving & respiratory muscles decrease in function i.e. Lou Gehrig’s disease  Myelin disease: demyelination; scarring impedes natural conduction abilities i.e. Multiple Sclerosis: a systemic impact on the cerebral cortex  Difficulty getting alpha motor neuron information to CNS 3 Kinesiology 1080B Term Test 1 Material Jennifer C THE CEREBRAL CORTEX or CEREBRUM  Palidotomy: measures activation of a single neuron on the cerebral cortex  Divides into the occipital, parietal, temporal and frontal lobe  LESION: inability to use fine motor abilities; “power grip” motor abilities only Occipital Lobe or Area V1 (Primary Visual Cortex)  Contains primary and secondary visual areas  Responsible for cortical magnification  Properties of this area: orientation, spatial frequency and maybe colour  LESION: causes Cortical Blindness or Blind sight Cortical Magnification:  # Central V1 neurons > # peripheral V1 neurons  Peripheral V1 neurons aren’t mapped to as many visual neurons  Central neurons have more V1 neurons  Allows us to read in high spatial resolution Cortical Blindness or Blind sight:  LESION in Area V1 (primary visual cortex)  Unable to perceive visual stimuli i.e. can’t see an orange in front of them  Damage in V1 which is responsible for high level processing  Difficult to diagnose: patients act normally but can’t see/identify objects V2  Causes binocular vision  Contain binocular disparity neurons: generate 3D images; depth perception Current Care of Ophthalmological Health of Children (V2)  Hubel’s Experiment  If organism lacks binocular vision, they will not attain depth perception skills  Example: Lazy eye  patch functional eye and force vision via lazy eye o If done at an early age, the child won’t develop depth perception Hubel (and Wiesel)  Blobs & Interblobs Experiment: Single cell recording of V1 in the awake cat provided further understanding of the mammalian visual system  Put an eye patch on both eyes of a kitten (disallowed vision) 4 Kinesiology 1080B Term Test 1 Material Jennifer C  Kitten never developed binocular or stereoscopic views Demonstrates a critical developmental period for binocular disparity cells. Hubel discovered 2 different neurons:  Blobs: V1 cells for movement of colour & cylindrical shapes  Interblobs: V1 cells that are orientation sensitive V3 and V3 D V  V1  V3  Parietal cortex creates visual information for action D  V1  V3 vTemporal lobe creates visual information for perceptions V4  Associates with V1, the primary visual cortex  Makes decisions regarding orientation and size properties of objects i.e. identifying simple geographic shapes  LESION: difficulty distinguishing between a triangle and a square V5 (Area MT)  A detection system for movement  Uses visual information to detect internal or external movements  Ability to navigate in the environment Parietal Lobe  Contains the primary somatosensory cortex (S1)  Properties of this area: planning & controlling voluntary movements; visuospatial skills Inferior Parietal Lobe (IPL): area that plans the movement before you make the movement; most sophisticated and recently developed area of the brain  LESION: difficulty initiating movement Superior Parietal Lobe (SPL): area responsible for feedback control of an action based on environmental conditions after you make the movement  LESION: coordination difficulties Example: If you had the desire to pick up an object, the IPL is used. However, if you miss the object you intended to reach, the SPL corrects limb movement using feedback from the external environment so you will pick up the object in the end. Anterior Intraparietal (AIP): provides critical information for grasping objects 5 Kinesiology 1080B Term Test 1 Material Jennifer C Parietal Occipital (PO): a structure between the parietal and occipital lobe that is responsible for transporting limbs to objects intended to reach  Focuses on limb movement Visuospatial Neglect (condition in the parietal lobe) Visuospatial neglect is difficulty interpreting given information into a single picture.  People don’t attend to visual stimuli but can see it; they can’t construct the entire image o Right field processed by left hemisphere vice versa  Cause: head trauma i.e. head injury or stroke  Treatment: Prison goggles causing a shift to your opposite visual field; “normal” vision for a couple of hours thus allowing patients to construct full images Temporal Lobe  Responsible for visual object recognition (interpreting objects) o Haptic information: allows for touch recognition  Contains the primary auditory cortex o Lateralized function: If lateralized to left cerebral hemisphere, the left hemisphere would have speech comprehension abilities.  LESION in LEFT HEMISPHERE: difficulty understanding speech  Location of the hippocampus (memory & learning) o Forms new explicit memories containing factual information i.e. recalling information on a test o LESION: inability to form new long term memories i.e. 50 first dates  Can still learn new motor skills, supported by cerebellum Frontal Lobe  Functions in working memory (mental rehearsal skills) o Defines our personality and who we are o Gage  pole went through his frontal lobe; changed his personality  Contains primary and secondary motor areas o Primary Motor Cortex (M1): common action pathway o Secondary Motor Cortex  Supplementary Motor Area (SMA)  Premotor Area (PM) SUBCORITCAL STRUCTURES According to the Classic View of the CNS, subcortical structures:  Modify signals from the cerebral cortex 6 Kinesiology 1080B Term Test 1 Material Jennifer C  2ndin command Brainstem  Role in basic attention, arousal and consciousness  All information to and from our body pass through this area to and from the brain  Regulates autonomic processes i.e. respiration, heart rate  Defies classic view within the CNS o Superior Colliculus (SC): responsible for saccades (goal-directed voluntary eye movements) Locked-In Syndrome: occurs when patients have a damaged brainstem  Patients are unresponsive to stimuli but are emotionally present Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy (CTE)  PET scans are used in CTE  Radioisotope is injected into a concussion battery  Radioisotope allows us to identify proteins responsible for plaque buildup in the brain  Damages are usually in subcortical structures (i.e. brainstem) Cerebellum  Role in coordination of voluntary movement, equilibrium, and muscle tone  Responsible for movement timing in the CNS; a clock telling the brain when to active and inactive particular areas of the brain  Forms long-term implicit memories so we can perform movements again  INJURED: don’t remember how to perform motor skills  LESION: Cerebellar Ataxia impacting both sides of the cerebellum that disturbs muscle coordination; leads to cerebellar gate o Cerebellar Gate: inability to move limbs due to inability to time movements in the cerebellum  CONDITION: Stuttering – have a soft deficit to their cerebellum o No structural problem but a wiring problem o Difficulty with timing Basal Ganglia  Varied group of nuclei connected to the thalamus & cerebral cortex  Important for excitation of M1 neurons o Inactive M1: can’t move o Active M1: can move 7 Kinesiology 1080B Term Test 1 Material Jennifer C  Receive & send information to cortex o Cortex  receives input; Basal Ganglia receives output  Globuspalus (GP): receives input from thalamus sending inhibitory input to movement-related centres; from Striatum  Globuspalus  Thalamus  Substantia Nigra: produces dopamine (deficiency of dopamine causes Parkinson’s)  Subthalamic Nuclei: critical for primary excitatory neurotransmitters in the brain  Deficit of M1 neurons causes Parkinson’s  Example of diseases/disorders of the Basal Ganglia: turrets, OCD, hemiballismus o Hemiballismus: continuous rotary movement of the arm/leg of one side Parkinson’s Thalamus is inhibited from functioning; extreme difficulty initiating movements (large tremor and slow movements)  Disallows primary motor cortex activation  Aldoba medication temporarily activates M1 neurons stopping tremor  Parkinson’s Gate Stroke  Hemorrhagic Stroke o Rupture of the arterial wall leading to bleeding within the brain o Blood is very toxic to neurons  Ischemic Stroke o Blockage of artery to or within the brain o Lack of oxygen (anoxia) leads to neuronal death  Area of neuronal death fills with cerebral spinal fluid  hole in the brain where neurons do not regenerate Consists of the: FRONTAL LOBE: MOTOR STRUCTURES  Primary Motor Cortex (M1)  Each structure has spinal cord projections  Supplementary Motor Area (SMA) The Primary Motor Cortex (M1) 50% of neurons to the descending motor pathway (spinal cord) Jackson – wife’s epileptic seizures  Noticed seizures would progress systematically (limbs upward)  Concluded there must be an organization to the brain & movement Penfield – father of neurosurgery 8 Kinesiology 1080B Term Test 1 Material Jennifer C  Would probe the brain to see what happens  M1 would elicit a simple movement (twitch) in response to mild electrical stimulation  Found human homunculus  final common pathway to action Penfield stated there was a direct pathway in the primary motor cortex (M1).  Excitatory pathway from M1 to Striatum  Inhibitory signals sent from Striatum to Substantia Nigra and Globuspalus  Inhibitory signals sent from Substantia Nigra and Globuspalus are sent to Thalamus  Excitatory signals are sent from Thalamus to M1 creating movement If thalamus sends an inhibitory signal to the M1 instead, person will be unable to move. Arguments against Penfield’s “Final Common Pathway to Action” 1. Contemporary view of Primary Motor Cortex (M1)  Electrodes probed movement of a finger and neuron activation was measured  Map illustrated in spheres and colours i.e. yellow represented the thumb  Sizes of the sphere represented intensity of activation i.e. large – high freq. Contemporary view says there is no homuncular region for the hand and they are intermingled with each other, they aren’t strict in their positions. Effectors aren’t neuron segregated instead they overlap each other. Overall – any body regions that are adjacent to each other intermingle. 2. Apostolus Georgopolus  monkey neurophysiologist  Minipulandum: motor arm connected to the primary motor cortex o Associated with 8 target points that light up when activated  Light is a stimulus to move the minipulandum  Georgopolus measured the raster plot: activation of 1 neuron overtime  1 tick on a raster plot shows depolarization of 1 neuron  Georgopolus discovered neurons are tuned to a directional response o Only when monkey moves to the left  fires at great frequency Primary Cortex Neurons (M1) are tuned to the direction of a response (movement). 3. Prolonged M1 Electrical Stimulation  Examined what occurred to M1 neurons in monkeys  Panel A: monkeys always brought hand to mouth; food stimulation o Suggests neural ensembles clustered at M1 level o There are specific actions retained in the M1 9 Kinesiology 1080B Term Test 1 Material Jennifer C Primary motor cortex is not a final common pathway because there are clusters of neurons at M1 4. Corticomotorneuronal activity is movement specific  Precision grip – grasping with thumb and forefinger = activation of M1 neurons  Power grip – grasping without fingers = no activation of M1 neurons  Indicates M1 neurons are specific for movements 5. Dysmelia  evidence for Brain Plasticity in the Primary Motor Cortex (M1) Dysmelia = “incomplete development”  Thalidomide was a drug to treat morning sickness in pregnant mothers o Fetus was born with dysmelia (incomplete limbs)  On brain scans of dysmelia patients, neurons ar
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