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Intro to Psycho Motor Behavior Notes All Lectures

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Kinesiology 1080A/B
Matthew Heath

A new form of apraxia: The Case of CK - Stroke, resulting in a lesion in the right parietal lobe Dyspraxia - Two weeks later she could perform actions perfectly, she - Developmental coordinative disorder could immitate actions perfectly but she could not - A soft issue with the development of the perform the movement with an object sophisticated praxis system - Somatosensory type of apraxy, the mot profound type of - A characteristic deficit in the timing of their apraxia movement - Has impaired movement in both her left and right hand - Speach: timing deficit, getting the order for 12 years - Thought that becuase of her lesion, the somatosensory sylables of words confused - Children gradually move out of the this as their system is over tuned, any information coming in is cortex grows and becomes more sophisticated amplified 60 Cerebral Asymmetries in Down Syndrome Control DS 61 KNOW THIS SHIT! - Persons with Down Syndrome "perceive" speech with their right cerebral hemisphere - Probably not a good thing because that hemisphere is not optimized for speech perception - Smaller brain - The cerebellum is smaller - People with Down Syndrome are usually smalled, their brain may be matched to the size of their body - Most of the population (90%) is right hand dominant, 99% of these people are left hemisphere dominante (speech and language is lateralized to the left hemisphere) - 90% of left hand dominant have speech and language lateralize d to their left hemishpere - 50% of people with Down Syndrome are left handed - People with Down Syndrome have their right temporal lobe activated when they hear speech sounds Theory: - Everything that is typically lateralized to the left hemisphere in the general population is lateralized in the right hemisphere - People with Down Syndrome have speach lateralized to the left hemisphere - Only speech and language have an atypical lateralization - Deficit in verbal motor behaviour because of the seperation of their right hemisphere (speach perception) and their left hemisphere (speach production and praxis system) - Rastral fifth: Critical for between hemisphere communication for verbal communication - A thin area (few neurons) in people with Down Syndrome - People with Down Syndrome have extreme difficulty learning motor task through verbal instruction - This is due to the proposed model of biological association - They have a much greater ability to learn through visual obeservation due to their overdevelopment of their mirror neuron system Spinal Cord Connections with Extrafusal Muscle What is a propriospinal neuron? Why are they important? 63 Extrafusal muscle fiber: thick muscle fiber, power producing muscle Intrafusal muscle Red line: alhpa motor neuron Green line: axon of the alpha motor neuron Small Circles: cell body of the msucle fiber Red: inhibitory - Information leaves the spinal cord through the ventral root ganglion - Information prjected to the spinal cord through the dorsal root ganglion - Functional relationship with the intrafusal muscle fiber and the motor neuron - Monosynaptic - Gamma (fuzzi) motor neuron: syanpses onto an intrafusal muscle fiber - Golgi Tendon Organ: senses tension or force being developed in the muscle - Sends information back into the spinal cord via the dorsal root ganglia and synapses onto an interneuron - The interneuron then synapses onto the alpha motor neuron - Oligo synaptic pathway (two synapses) - Interneurons allows for synaptic connectivity within the same level of the spinal cord - Propriospinal neurons: allows for between segment communication CC modulates action of motor neurons in brain stem and spinal cord: corticobulbar tract The Parametal Tract - Outflow of information from the brainstem to the spinal cord - About 1 million fibers - Allows for descending motor control - How information from M1, SMA, PMA and parietal cortex is sent to the spinal cord - Corticobubar tract - fibers extend from the motor cortex to the "bulb" (i.e. the brain stem) - The cell body (red circle) descends into the "bulb" of the brain - Control of muscles of the face, muscles of mastication (food chewing) - Comprised of both upper (red neuron) and lower motor neurons (green neuron) - Specific unilateral impairment contralateral to the lesion - Corticospial tract 64 CC modulates action of motor neurons in brain stem and spinal cord: corticobulbar - Facial nucleus is divided into rostral (innervates forehead) and caudal (innervates mouth) parts tract - Rostral part innervated bilaterally - Caudal part innervated from contralateral cortex - What is the impact of an upper vs. lower motor neuron lesion? - Axon goes to both the left and right side of body = bilaterally - Contrast to caudal component that sends projections contralaterally -left brain= right side of body/ right lower facial area - Asymetrical innervation + paralysis on the contralesional side of the hemi of the brain with the impairment (tumor on the right cortex) - If everything is fine you get a symmetrical smile - Infection of mastoid process - Lower motor neuron issue - Complete paralysis on one side, because lower motor neurons are impaired, and you can't innervate any muscle - Asymetrical paralysis that is CONTRALESIONAL l 65 Ventral Corticospinal Tract - Ventral component of Corticospinal Tract - Originate from M1, SMA and PMA (vast majority is from M1) - Descend "uncrossed" in ventral columns of the spinal cord, forming ventral corticospinal tract - Innervate axial musculature :muscles involved in gross body movement ex) trunk and back muscles - Goes down far, a long axon can go all the way to lumbar region - Axon goes down uncrossed (ipsilateral connection) - Type of connection that forms ventral corticospinal tract - They tend to make connections with propriospinal neurons - Propriospinal neurons allow for communication of neuro signals between segments of the spinal cord - Neuron can send it's projections to multiple alpha neurons at different levels in the spinal cord and those different alpha motor neurons can inneverate different muscles - Tract is designed for communication and coordination of multiple muscles - If you bend down, you're using the ventral corticospinal tract to support yourself and coordinate the movement 66 Lateral Corticospinal Tract - Originate from M1 (majority), but they also come from SMA, PMA, and the parietal cortex - 75% of fibers cross at pyramidal decussation - Pyramids are a structure on the brain stem that - Contralateral pathway - Monosynaptic connections - Primary monosynaptic connections - Why humans are at the top of the food chain - Single neuron synapses on a single alpha motor neuron - Importance of monosynaptic connections: allows for precise and independent digit control - People with injuries can only have a power grip instead of a precision grip - Goal-directed actions 67 - The higher the number of fibers per tract, the greater the dexterity - How well you can move your hands - Humans have the largest number of fibers that associate with the descending pathway - A lot of fibres merge on a single alpha motor neuron, allowing for independent digit control 68 Important Difference Between Ventral and Lateral Corticospinal Tracts 1) Lateral corticospinal tract connects (i.e. synapses) with a motor neuron 2) Ventral corticospinal tract connects to propriospinal neurons, which ultimately synapse with motor neurons - Propriospinal neurons allow coordination between multiple motor neurons - Axial muscles, not muscles associated with hand or forehead - Sends info up and down spinal cord and between segments 69 What happens when there is a lesion to the lateral corticospinal tract Ablation study -selectively a single component associated with a pathway What happens when there is a lesion to the lateral corticospinal tract - Impairs fine coordination of individual fingers - Persons with stroke often have difficulty performing daily living activities such as buttoning a shirt- they can only make a fist when manipulating objects - In the second picture with the monkey of a lesion, it takes the monkey a very long time to be successful with a powergrip - Chronic and long term deficit to be able to not perform a precision grip - Nothing allows for recovery (not rehabilitable, because you need an intact corticospinal tract) 70 Important T erms 1. Innervation - the distribution of nerves to a part of the body 2. Innervation ratio - the number of muscle fiberes innervation by a single alpha (a) motorneurons; can very from a few to over a thousand 3. Extrafusal fibers - power producing muscle fibers external with respect to muscle spindles 4. Intrafusal fibers - muscle fibers inside of the muscle spindles; innvervated by a special system of fusimotor neurons (ȧ -motorneurons) - Includes fusimotor (gamma) and intrafusal motor neurons - Eyes have a low innervation ratioement 71 - Quadriceps have a high innervation ratio since they don’t need to make precise movements Motor Neurons and Motor Units - Alpha motor neurons= a neuron innervating power producing, extrafusal muscle fiber - Motor-unit= single alpha motor neuron and all the muscles it innervates; a unit of force production in skeletal muscles - Much larger than gamma-motor neurons - On schematic, the lowest neuron is thicker - Size determines how quickly the signal is conducted - Alpha motor neurons are much larger than gamma-motor neurons - The number of muscle fibers associated with a motor unit ranges from 10 (eye) to thousands (back musculature) 72 Motor Neurons and Motor Units This is an example of a small motor unit with only three muscle fibers - Motor unit pool: a bunch of alpha motor neurons and all the extrafusal muscles that it innervates Fusi-Motor Neurons - Gamma-motor neurons= small neurons innervating intrafusal fibers and changing sensitivity of muscle response to dynamic stretch - Polar connections between intrafusal and extrafusal fibers - Run entire length of a muscle - Highly sensitive to be able to detect stretch - Primary goal is to detect stretch (stretch=space information/ proprioception) - Have same orientation as extrafusal muscle fibers (run in parallel) - You wouldn't know where your limbs are if you don't look at yourself (if you didn't have fusi-motor neurons/injury) 74 CONCUSSIONS Impact battery= neural pschological tests that evaluate behaviours - how fast and accurately you can perform a task - compare results to before concussion to after ERP measures of cognitive processing 1. Event-related potentials (ERPs) are averaged electrical brain responses to time-locked stimuli 2. N2pc = ERP component related to the focusing of visuospatial attention 3. P300 = measure of stimulus classification processing speed EEG measures electrical activation of the cortex - measeures nueronal activation Reasons for Second Concussion - poor processing of visuospatial information - poor classification of information De Beaumont Study - 3 groups of athletes: non-concussed, single concussed, two or more concussion - patients concussed were removed 9 months after their concussive event - all of the impact battery tests showed the same results for each test group - neuropsychologically they all have the same profile, possibly concluding that it is safe for all patients to return to their concussive event - a fixation point in the middle of the screen, one of the stimuli is a different colour (target stimuli), dependant on the orientation of the target box the patients had to respond a certain way - classifying the target and classifying a particular response - the reaction time was the same across all groups - their behaviours are all the same - the size of N2pc neuronal activation was the same across all groups: speed of visuospatial attention - there is a decrease in P300 in neuronal activation as a function of increasing concussions - first study to show a different between the neurophysiological vs. neuropsychological condtions of concussed - neurons do not fire as effectively, relating to how patients classify stimuli - equivalent neurophysiological test profiles of non-concussed, concussed and multiple concussed athletes - no different in N2pc - supressed P300 activity in multiple concussed athletes - the specificity of long-term effect of concussion provides a framework to pinpoint the cognitive system impairment in multiple concussions Motor Unit Types 1. Fast twitch, fatigable (FF) (Fast Motor Unit) • Characterized by highest conduction velocity (100 m/s) - large fiber diameterhest conduction velocity (100m/s) - innervate fast twitch muscle fibers • Innervate fast twitch muscle fibers 2. Fast twitch, fatigue resistant (FR) -•charCharacterized by medium conduction velocity (60 m/s) - medium fiber diameter -•inneMedium fiber diameterow twitch muscle fibers • Innervate fast and/or slow twitch muscle fibers 3. Slow twitch, fatigue resistant (SR) (Slow Motor Unit) - characterized by slow conduction velocity (40m/s)0 m/s) - small fiber diameter - innervated slow twitch muscle fibers • Innervate slow twitch muscle fibers 75 Motor Unit and Muscle Fiber Types in Athletes 1. Sprinter: 80% fast and 20% slow motor units 2. Marathoner: 20% fast and 80% slow motor units 3. Average person: 50% fast motor units and 50% slow motor units 4. Couch potato: 60% fast and 40% slow motor units 5. Spinal injury: 96% fast and 4% slow motor units - cannot sustain long movements coloured)d: slow twitch muscle fibers, high oxygen and HEME (Fe, red - white: fast twitch muscle fibers, low oxygen - plasticity of motor unit types in the CNS - influenced by training - older adults have a greater percentage of slow motor units, they move slowly, not allowing fast motor units to thrive - lose posteral stability and fall, cannot conduct neural impulses fast enough to brace themselves - Koceja study found that with wobble board training increases the ration of fast twitch fatiguable motor units, this is associated with an – Can training alter improvement in their balance motor unit and muscle fiber types? 76 Prosaccade: when you look at an object - Entails direct spatial overlap between stimulus and response - Onset of stimulus triggers a response, often reflexive - Takes short period of time to initiate a prosaccade - The brain doesn't need too much info to initiate a prosaccade - Take around 180ms to initiate= reaction time for a prosaccade Antisaccades: entail looking near symmetrical to the location of the stimulus ex) if you have a stimulus that flashes at the right visual field, you would end up looking at the left - Provide us with a measure of top-down inhibitory control To complete a successful antisaccade: 1) Inhibit normally reflexive stimulus driven prosaccade (response supression) 2) Vector inversion= process where you have to perform a 180degree spatial transformation of the target's location - 2 component process - Reaction time close to 300ms, therefore much longer to initiate - Increased reaction time is thought to be directly tied to response supression and vector inversion - Increase processing= increase in reaction time - Important to study antisaccades because it provides a window into inhibitory control - Antisaccades entail the same subcortical visual networks - These areas are in the frontal cortex but, difference is that neurons in those shared areas are much more active for an antisaccade task than a prosaccade task - Increase activation of frontal networks for antisaccades is thought to be directly tied to response supression (your brain is working harder) - Extensive activation of lateral intraparietal cortex, tied to vector inversion - Provides a window into why certain people have inhibitory difficulties - Sckitsophrenia - Have difficulty with impulse control (difficulty inhibiting actions) - Antisaccade task used as part of a battery of tests to determine the severity of schkitsophrenic symptoms - Inability to inhibit prosaccade - Extreme difficulty performing a directionally accurate antisaccade - Frontal lobe is not functioning optimally - Antisaccade task used to examine the inability of individuals to inhibit reflexive stimulus response MCI= myocognitive impairment - Older adult who's forgetful, can't remember names, places, etc. - Thought that people with MCI are on a progression to developing Alzheimer's - Use antisaccade task to see if people have MCI - People with MCI have an inhibitory difficulty - Might be used as clinicians to put people on right path for pharmaceutical intervention before hitting Alzheimers - Important clinical interventions - Brain organization Task switching paradigm - Prosaccade, prosaccade, antisaccade, antisaccade (aabb paradigm) - Do a whole string of them (hundreds of them) - Interested in the cost of switching from prosaccade to antisaccade, or cost of switching from antisaccade to prosaccade - "switch costs" - when you switch from one type of task to one other --> measuring reaction time - how long it takes to initiate - When you switch from pro to antisaccade, there is no cost. Antisaccade has normal antisaccade reaction time - Anti to prosaccade has a cost. Significant increase in task-switch prosaccade = unidirectional prosaccade switch cost - Only a prosaccade that has a cost, if the previous trial was a antisaccade. - Antisaccade= supression + vector inversion - This is because response supression leads to risidual inhibition of occular motor network - After you do an antisaccade, they don't want to do another task because they're inhibited - Therefore can't initiate prosaccade as quickly ex) driving down dark empty country road, you don't want to look at the lights, but away from it - Decoupling stimulus and response SNARC effect - Spatial numerical association of response codes - Sir francis galton - The idea of a mental numberline - For most, we represent in ascending left to right order - People who put numbers everywhere on a page are more creative - How numbers influence movement - Study: participant stares at a fixation cross - Flash numbers 1,2, 8,9 at the left or right of the fixation cross - Participant points to where it is - 1, 2 in left visual space, there was a shorter reaction time and movement times than when flashed 8,9 in the same visual space - Conversely, when flashed 8,9 in right visual space, participants had shortest reaction and movement times than when flashed 1,2 in the same space - When there's a stimulus congruent with number line, then movement is optimized - Even if you aren't consciously aware of number line, it will affect speed and effectiveness of response - There is an inversion of the effect when if your number line is different ie) if you don't read english/arabic numbers but read some language that reads from right to left Neuron Types Important for Motor Control 77 The Henneman Principle (Size Principle) The recruitment of motor units within a muscle proceeds from small motor units to large ones – Low force contraction, nearly all force produced by slowest motor units – If contraction force increased , larger motor neurons start to fire – At the highest levels of force (maximal voluntary contraction) What motor unit type do you think declines with the largest motor units age? are recruited 78 Motor unit rectruitment: size principle - It's a law! How the CNS operates in terms of increasing force requirements - Squat 180lbs = low force contraction - All the force produced by the slowest motor units - You could do this squat a number of times because you can have continual contraction due to the slow motor units - Increasing the mass= needs more force to squat - Increase force of contraction, you need larger motor units to become involved in the movement - Increase involvement in fatigue resistant motor units when you increase mass - Next size in fiber diameter from those slow motor units (go from slow to big) - Maximal amount of force engages the whole spectrum of motor units - Using large motor units for a lower mass makes you tire out quicker - How different motor types are recruited in relation to increasing force related to task - Golgi tendon organs protect system from too much force being developed and prevents muscles being torn off bones - People can inhibit their golgi tendon organs and lift really heavy weights Synesthesia - 5 senses become mixed up - They can hear colours, see sounds, taste touch - 20 different types of synesthesia - People might have different types and combinations of them - 1% of the world's population - Harmless perceptual production - 2 theories 1. Increased wiring between neighbouring brain neighbourhoods 2. Wiring is in everyone, but it is regularly inhibited, but is active and "not working" in people with synesthesia - Drawbacks to synesthesia - Don't get to pick the colour to whatever item ex) might like the instrument but hate the colour, which makes you unhappy - Do subtle changes in genome have an effect on synesthesia - People who say there's an aura around them might have synesthsia - Salem witch trials might have been synesthesia people Gun Fight Analogy - If you draw first you have made a top down decision that requires a lot of cortical activation - Top down decisions are slow processes because it involves a lot of cotrical regions - Decision is slow = response is slow - The individual who see their opponenet draw first creates a stimulus driven response - Stimulus driven = reflexive - They do not involve any top down cognitive control - Use a very basic neuro curcuitry that is not cortical - They are mediated subcortically, they do not need to go thorugh all the cortical structures, they are much faster than the top down decision e m The Scientific Method Topic #3 79 Scientific Method - Describe, predict and explain when events occur Explanation has a benefit or no benefitg group and a non-drug group, concluding that they drug Prediction - Measuring VO2 max and predicting how they would do in a matathon –Goals of science - Doing the experimentvcation • understand – describe – explain – predict –Empiricism • verification by observation – proposals are subjected to a test – perform an experiment and obtain data 80 Scientific Method • Scientific Method –Science • a process of gathering knowledge about the world – asking questions about the world – making hypotheses about nature of things and testing these hypotheses – provides a systematic approach • science is just one way of acquiring knowledge - The goal of the scientific method is to test a hypothesis 81 Research Methods –Experiment • tool for determining nature of relationship between variables • confirm or disconfirm hypothesis • manipulate and observe the effects of a variable on another variable – manipulate type of stimulus (visual or auditory) – observe effects of stimulus on reaction time 82 Research Methods –Experiment • Independent Variable – variable that is manipulated by the experimenterer - Observe effects of independent variable on dependant variable – observe effects of independent variable on dependent variable • Dependent Variable – - Change in dependent variable is assumed to be a result of change in the independent variable – change in dependent variable is assumed to be a result of change in independent variable 83 Research Methods visual signal auditory signal IV Vs. light buzzer DV reaction time 200 180 160 e140 t120 100 t 80 r 60 40 20 0 light buzzer stimulus 84 - In response to a stimulus the participant must hit a button - The experiemter measures reaction time, this is the dependent variable - The independent variable is a visual or auditory stimulus - 2 levels: visual and aurditory stimulus Test questions will provide an abstract - Dependent variable: noticable difference - Independent varibale: size- 5 levels, condition (visual condition)- 4 levels - Dependents variable: time, tray velocity, latency of postural responses, hip shoulder patterns - Independent variable: constraint levels (low vs high)- 2 levels, parkinson's disease or not- 2 levels Research Studies –Experiment - What are the dependent varinables?? - How do the variables relate to the concepts of interest? • what are the dependent variables?sis - Wh- Relating to hypothesissults? - What are the interpretations/conclusions?ts of interest? • what are the (expected) results? • what are the interpretations / conclusions? 85 Classifying and Identifying Motor Skills Topic #4 86 Identifying Motor Skill Types •Motor skills can be bclassified` using three schemes: 1. Task Organization 2. Motor and Cognitive Elements 3. Level of Environmental Predictability •Allow practitioners to distinguish tasks from one another • What task(s) should be emphasized in the early and/ or latter stages of motor skill acquisition? 87 A Taxonomy - A way to make a classification Three Taxonomies of Motor Skills 1. Task Organization 2. Motor and Cognitive Elements 3. Level of Environmental Predictability - Taxonomy systems are used to get someone to an elite level of athletic performance - Do not want to expose someone to a skill set that they are not ready to be exposed to (someone who has a closed head injury, introducing them into a rehab environment they are not ready for) 1.  Task Organization A.  Discrete Skill: – AA skill that is organized such that the action is usually brief and and has a well-defined beginnning and end - a golf swing, getting out of a wheel-chair has a well-defined beginning and end B.  Serial Skill: A type of skill characterized by serial discrete actions connected together in a sequence – A type of skill characterized by serial discrete actions connected together in a sequence – OOften the order of the actions is critical to performance -successly line task, driving a standard car - frontal lobe inury have difficulty performing these tasks, avoid in early recovery C.  Continuous Skill: -  AA skill that unfolds without a recognizable beginning or end, inan ongoing and often repitive fashion an ongoing and often repetitive fashion Discrete Skill Serial Skill Continuous Skill Golf swing Playing piano Swimming Sit-to-stand Assembly-line Steering a car tasks 88 Task Organization Classification: A continuum … Discrete Serial Continuous 89 takes them a long time to learn a taskaking processes, 2.  Motor and Cognitive Elements - Young children do not have a well developed cortex and it takes them a long time to learn a cognitive task A.  Motor Skill: developmentcerebellum to support action based on skill • PriPrimary determinant of movement success is the quality of thevement movement B.  Cognitive Skill: • PriPrimary determinant of success is the quality of the performer`scision making decision making The motor / cognitive continuum Motor Skills Motor/Cognitive Cognitive Skills Skills High-jumping Quarterbacking Chess Weight lifting Negotiating a Cooking a busy hallway meal Coach a sport • During skill learning we generally progress from cognitive to motor 90 Motor and Cognitive Classification, also a continuum … Motor Cognitive Cognitive-Motor 91 3.  Level of Environmental Predictability A.  Open Skill: • SkSkill performed in an unpredictable or in motion environment,quiring individuals to adopt their movement in response to the dynarequiring individuals to adopt their movement in response to the dynamic properties of their environment B.  Closed Skill: - Skill performed in an environment that is predictable or stationary and that allows individuals to plan their movement in - Regardless of a CNS disorder or broken leg you want them to perform in a closed skill The open / closed continuum Closed Skills Semi- Open Skills predictable Bowling Steering a car Hockey Brushing teeth Fielding Returning a bouncing ball punt Writing Catching a butterfly 92 Measurement, Interpretation and Evaluation of Motor Skill Performance Topic #5 93 Measuring Motor Behavior: blevels of analyses` 1. Performance outcome 2. Describing the movement 3. Measuring activity of the central nervous system (CNS) 94 1. Performance outcome A.  Measures of Time and Speed •  Performer who can accomplish an action in a given time is more efficient I.  Reaction Time: RT •  The interval between the onset of a signal (stimulus) and the initiation of a response •  Reaction time tasks: •  Simple reaction time (SRT) •  Choice reaction time (CRT) •  Discriminant reaction time (DRT) 95 Reaction Time warning lgoz mov`t mov`t signal signal starts ends foreperiod reaction time movement time time Randomize foreperiod 96 Reaction Time T ests Simple RT Choice RT Discriminant RT Stimulus light(s) Response key(s) Index finger Index Middle Ring Index finger 97 Reaction time (cont`d): •  Reaction time can be fractionated into: 1.  Premotor RT: •  Period of time between onset of stimulus and beginning of muscle activity •  Measured with EMG •  Measures time-frame required to receive and process information 2.  Motor RT: •  Period of time between onset of muscle activity and observable movement •  Time lag in muscle needed to overcome inertia of limb 98 Components of Reaction Time ElectroMyoGraphy: • measure electrical activity of muscle 99 Fractionation of Reaction Time lgoz Movement signal begins time premotor time motor time 100 Putting RT To Practice •  The International Association of Athletic Federations (IAAF) criterion for a sprint false start is 100 msec (one- tenth of a second). •  Is this a valid criterion? Starter`s gun -113 msec -16 msec 0 msec 16 msec 113 msec 101 Time (msec) •  RT for simple finger movement ~ 150 – 200 msec •  Length of motor pathway? •  RT for a multi-joint movement of the lower limb????? •  Length of motor pathway? 102 1. Performance outcome B.  Measures of Time and Speed •  Performer who can accomplish an action in a given time is more efficient II.  Movement Time: MT •  The interval between the initiation of a response (end of motor RT) to the completion of a movement III. Total Response Time: TRT •  RT + MT •  Important - very different processes underlie RT and MT •  Training for RT will not improve MT: and vice versa 103 Measuring Motor Behavior: blevels of analyses` 1. Performance outcome 2. Describing the movement 3. Measuring activity of the central nervous system (CNS) 104 2.  Describing the movement A.  Qualitative Description •  Verbal descriptions, time-lapse photography 105 2.  Describing the movement B.  Movement Kinematics •  Branch of mechanics describing bpure` motion •  How far, how fast I.  Displacement •  Spatial position of effector (i.e., arm) during movement II.  Velocity •  Rate of change of an objects position (i.e., arm) with respect to time III. Acceleration •  Change in velocity of an object (i.e., arm) during movement 106 Kinematics of a Reaching Movement 107 108 109 110 Measuring Motor Behavior: blevels of analyses` 1. Performance outcome 2. Describing the movement 3. Measuring activity of the central nervous system (CNS) 111 3.  Measuring CNSActivity A.  Electromyography •  Electrical activity associated with muscle contraction •  Provides information regarding the temporal and intensity characteristics of the movement 112 T onic Activation •What EMG looks like if you electrically stimulate the muscle Phasic Activation Why do tonic and phasic EMG profiles look so different? •What EMG looks like for voluntary contraction 113 Apatient with left hemiparesis due to a brain gunshot wound attempting to readjust his sitting position by pushing down on the wheelchair`s armrest with his right arm. B, Dynamic EMG of elbow musculature during this activity revealed high EMG recruitment in flexor and extensor muscles about the elbow. Courtesy of Nathaniel Mayer. 114 3.  Describing the movement A.  Measures of BrainActivity •  Provide measures of when and what brain regions activate during movement I.  Electroencephalography (EEG) and Magnetoencephalography (MEG) MEG 115 MRI vs. fMRI 116 Measures of brain activity (cont`d) II.  Positron Emission Tomography (PET) and functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) fMRI PET 117 118 rTMS Fadiga et al. (1998) –  TMS: corticospinal activity with high temporal sensitivity –  excitation/inhibition in the corticospinal tract at the moment of simulation –  MEPs of muscle assessed to examine the brelease` of action 119 Fadiga et al. (1999) 120 121 122 Nowak et al. 2010: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair 123 124 125 Khedr et al. 2010: European Journal of Neurology Information Processing: 3-Stage Approach Topic #6 126 The simplified information-processing model Input The human Output •  Simplified information processing approach 127 3-Stage Model of Information Processing Input Output Stimulus Response Response Identification Selection Programming •We process information similar to a computer •Stages of information processing are serial and discrete 128 A. Stimulus Identification Stage: 1. Stimulus Detection »  Sensory information attained from external sources is detected and transformed into neurological signals »  Neurological signals are mapped onto a meaningful event »  le.g., this baseball is approaching my face at a high rate of speedz 2. Pattern Recognition »  Extracting patterns or features from environmental stimuli for use in latter stages of info processing »  Can be a natural or trained phenomenon 129 Training for pattern recognition can enhance game day or on field decisions and performance 130 Real Game Random Game Chase and Simon (1973) Cognitive Psychology 132 3-Stage Model of Information Processing Input Output Stimulus Response Response IdentificationSelection Programming 133 B. Response Selection Stage –  Once stimulus is identified, the appropriate action must be selected –  E.g., lto brake or swerve to avoid a parked carz Factors Influencing Response Selection 1. Number of Stimulus Response Alternatives 2. Stimulus Compatibility 134 Stimulus Response Alternatives Increasing the number of alternatives relevant to a response increases the time required to process and select an appropriate response ExpTime (ms)1 with Experiment #2 with 2 Choices 4 Choices Reaction time increases 135 Hick`s Law (1952) Task Choice reaction time task Results RT increased by 150ms every time the S-R alternatives doubled Thus, relationship between choice RT and the logarithm of the S-R alternatives is linear Choice RT as a function of S-RAlternatives 1000 800 600 400 RT(ms) Y = 212 + 153(X) 200 0 1 StimulusInformation (bits)4 136 Equation for a straight line: Y = a + b(X)  This equation can be adapted to compute an RT value in a choice RT task Choice RT = a + b[Log 2N)] a and b are empirical constants What is a Log to the base of 2? Choice RT = 212 + 153(3) = 671 137 Information lBitz Abit is defined as the amount of information required to reduce uncertainty by half How many decisions in each case? X X 2 3 2 2 138 Stimulus Response Compatibility –  Extent to which stimulus and response are associated in a natural way SPATIAL COMPATIBILITY LIGHTS KEYS A
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