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Western University
Kinesiology 1080A/B

Topic 1 – Psycho-Motor Learning Motor learning – set of internal processes associated with practice or experience leading to a relatively permanent gain in performance capability - Performance benefit – transient – temp - Learning benefit – relatively permanent gain Motor Control – an area dealing with the understanding of neural, physical and behavioural aspects of movement - How the central nervous system allows it to perform a task Psychology – perception, cognition, action - The brain is a computer, the serial nature of information processing - Memory for different tasks; motor vs. cognitive - Richard Schifrin  memory for cognitive and motor or distinct from one another  “multimodal system of memory” Human Engineering - Arthur – pilots can be selected based in specific individual abilities - Paul – field of ergonomics; how we process information influences our interactions with machines/computers – he figured out how we process things in a complex environment Reciprocal Innervation - First understood by C.S. Sherrington - Suppresses activity of an antagonist muscle with agonist muscle - Explains walking, reaching - First common pathway at the spinal cord that produces muscular contraction - Spinal cord – final pathway motor commands get to extrafusal muscle Physical Education - Franklin M. Henry o Examined whole body movements and developed experimental approaches to understand how we learn to produce complex movements Topic 2 – The Nervous System Divisions of Nervous System - CNS – concerned with brain and spinal cord - PNS – only concerned with somatic, receives sensory information Hierarchical Organization of CNS - Think of cerebral cortex as “big boss”; it tells everyone else what to do and when to do it - Thalamus, basal ganglia, pons and cerebellum as being second in command - The brain stem is third in command – only a relay station - Spinal cord is ‘slave’ system to all the above Speed of Nerve Conduction - Measured in lower motor neuron - Information from spinal cord to extrafusal muscle fibres - Helmholtz – speed of nerve conduction o Estimate speed of human nerve contraction, measured in reaction time in response to electrical stimulus to two-pairs (foot, thigh) o Nerve conduction velocity is very fast - Diseases of the nerve – influence amplitude of nerve conduction (ALS) - Disease of the Myelin – influence conduction speed (MS) – destroys the myelin in patches along CNS Different Types of Neurons - Motor neurons – transmit motor commands down the spinal cord – away from CNS - Sensory neurons – transmit signals to and up the spinal cord – towards CNS The Cerebral Cortex/Cerebrum - Newest, most developed part of CNS - Composed of two distinct regions; left and right o Mirror images of one another – structurally no difference o 4 lobes  Phrenology – different parts of brain contain specific functions Cortical Structures - Occipital Lobe o The centre of our vision o Contains primary and secondary visual areas o Primary visual cortex – V1 – detects motion and colour changes David Hubel: Nobel Laureate and Canadian - Single cell recording of V1 in awake cat - Binocular cells in V1 – allows to see in 3D o Blobs = colour sensitive o Interblobs = orientation sensitive Cortical Structures - Parietal Lobe o Contains primary somatosensory cortex – S1 o Responsible for the planning and control of movement o Visuospatial skills o Allows for sensory to be combined with movement o Inferior – planning and initiating, superior – regulating o Right – allows you to shift attention from one location to another - Temporal Lobe o Function in visual object recognition o Contains primary auditory cortex o Locations of the hippocampus – memory and learning o Found in left cerebral hemisphere  If lesion – may have difficulty with speech and comprehension - Frontal Lobe o Functions in working memory o Contains primary and secondary motor areas o “seat of consciousness” o M1 – primary – all information into spinal cord – final pathway o Premotor and supplementary – secondary – PMA and SMA - Brain Stem o role in basic attention, arousal, and consciousness o all information to and from out body passes through the brain stem on the way to or from our brain - Cerebellum o Involved in coordination of voluntary motor movement, balance, equilibrium and muscle tone o Learning of new motor skills o Possibly involved in working memory o “stop watch of CNS” What is a Stroke? - Hemmorrhagic o Rupture of arterial wall leading to bleeding within the brain, blood very toxic to neurons, wall becomes thin and gives way - Ischemic o Blockage of artery to or within the brain – lack of oxygen (anoxia) leads to neural death The Primary Motor Cortex (M1) - Frontal lobe, final motor pathway - Movement can be directly produced by a very specific region of the cortex o Hitzit and Fritch – found specific part of brain which controls twitch/movement o Jackson – examined his wife; epileptic seizure – found systematic pattern (from hands to face) - Movement can be directly produced only by a very specific region of the cortex – the motor cortex (M1) o Penfield – was systematic surgeon – systematically mapped the brain to see what controls what Fast Electrical Stimulation of M1 - Motor cortex elicits simple movements (a twitch) in response to mild electrical stimulation The Human Homunculus - Found in primary motor cortex was specifically organized - Organized as per location of body - Designed optimally for communication of sensory and motor movement - Homunculus is to scale - Cortical magnification for neurons for hand movements – hands do more complicated task than toes Prolonged M1 Electrical Stimulation - Prolonged movement leads to the storage of complicated movements o Traditional view, but contemporary view proves that to not be true - M1 codes for posture, different movement types, and direction of movement - M1 is very specific part of brain for movement Cortical Reorganization - M1 is not plastic – plasticity – where things can change - Traditional view; M1 is wired and will stay in that figuration no matter what - Contemporary; shown not to be the case o Dysmelia – incomplete development - The completely developed – M1 is more controlling of that region – more cortical region - Less M1 is devoted to control of that limb = less cortical region - Brain has organized to fit = REORGANIZATION Amputation - Person with amputation - Limb is amputated and the cortical region that control something else takes over - Reorganization itself to use the empty region - Brain/ M1 is plastic structure that can change as a result of practice Control/ Kindled - Mapped out neurons - Between the pre and the post, the motor map changes significantly – as a result of epilepsy motor map changes significantly - Penfield’s maps may not match to a person with epilepsy - ‘phantom limb’ - Another limb has taken over, reorganizing to have more cortical region - Amputation patient – best for seeing reorganization - Penfield got orientation for the face to the hand wrong – needs to be flipped 180 degrees Mirror Neuron - Unique system that allows one to observe and learn actions based on other actions - LEARNING THROUGH OBSERVATION SMA - Coordination between hands, internally generated movements, - Giving M1 information about coordinating digits - With lesion; loses independent control - Some role in controlling complex movements; independent movement between two hands, direct projection to spinal cord – SMA neurons can directly command alpha motor neurons - Internally generated movements – SMA plays important role – movements based on one’s own decision to move - Movement sequ
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