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Kin 1080B Test #1.docx

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Western University
Kinesiology 1080A/B
Matthew Heath

Introduction to Psycho-Motor Learning Topic #1: What is Psycho-Motor Learning? Muscle Skeletal muscle is striated, while cardiac muscle is not (allows for forming joints) Extrafusal muscle: contraction Intrafusal muscle: monitor how much the extrafusal fibres have stretched (length) o Gives a proprioceptive sense, allows for knowledge of body position Motor Learning and Control Motor learning: a set of internal processes associated with practice or experience, leading to a relatively permanent gain in performance capability Motor control: an area of study dealing with the understanding of the neural, physical, and behavioural aspects of movement Performance benefit: get better at performing the skill, BUT it does not mean that the skill has been completely learned! (learning benefit) The historical development of motor learning/control is composed of four areas. In the 1960s, it became a real field of study: o Psychology: Richard Schiffrin: memory processes for motor and cognitive are distinct from one another multi-modal system of memory 1. The brain as a computer: the serial nature of information processing 2. Memory for different tasks: motor tasks vs. cognitive tasks o Engineering: Arthur Melton: pilots can be selected based on specific individual abilities A battery of tests given to recruits Turns out he was wrong-simple tasks dont show how one will perform on complex ones Paul Fitts: too many airplane accidents, the result of faulty human/machine interface Forefather of the field of ergonomics- cognitive ergonomics How we process information influences our interactions with machines and computers spatial compatibility o Neuroscience: Reciprocal innervation: first understood by C.S. Sherrington Suppresses activity of an antagonist muscle when agonist muscle is active Explains phenomenon such as walk or reaching Final common pathway at the spinal cord produce muscle contraction o Education: Franklin M. Henry examined whole body movements and developed experimental approaches to understanding how we learn to produce complex movements Motor learning: learn skills quickly, and maintain so they can expand/develop Topic #2: The Nervous System Hierarchical Organization of the Central Nervous System Classic version, over 100 years old Think of the cerebral cortex as the boss, tells everyone else what to do and when Thalamus, basal ganglia, the pons, and cerebellum are second in command Brainstem is third in command, as a relay structure Spinal cord is a slave to all of the above o Sub-cortical structures influence the activity of the cerebral cortex However, walking/locomotion violates the hierarchy doesnt use cortex, only spinal cord Startle reflex: arms come to body, trunk extends occurs so fast, that it cannot be mediated by the cerebral cortex Speed of Nerve Conduction Luigi Galvani (1737-1798) o Measured speed of conduction time in lower motor neuron (conveys information from spinal cord to extrafusal muscle fibre) o Previously, people had thought that movement was due to a shifting of fluid in the body Helmholtz (1850s) o Interested in speed of nerve conduction o Used isolated muscle and motor nerve of a frog o Measured time between electrical stimulation and muscle contraction (reaction time in response, between two points, like foot-thigh) o Nerve conduction velocity is very fast, 35-60m/s (lower motor neuron), which is about 1/10 the speed of sound speed in the spinal cord is much faster (central conduction time is 100 m/s) Diseases of the nerve: o Disease of the nerve influences the amplitude of nerve conduction Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) or Lou Gehrigs disease What happens when the amplitude of nerve impulse is diminished? degenerative effect on lower (alpha motor) neurons o Disease of the myelin influences conduction speed MS destroys the myelin in patches along the CNS Neurons and the Neuromuscular System Types of neurons 1. Motor (efferent) neurons: transmit motor commands down the spinal cord 2. Sensory (afferent) neurons: transmit signals to, and up, the spinal cord Functionally and anatomically distinct neuron types are important for motor control Efferent = dorsal route, afferent = ventral route Cortical Structures The Cerebral Cortex/Cerebrum o Highly developed, composed of two distinct hemispheres (mirror images of each other) o Each hemisphere is comprised of four lobes: occipital, frontal, parietal, temporal Phrenology and modern neuroscience: different parts of the brain contain very specific functions/ personality traits getting back to this, in that each part has a specific function (but not necessarily a personality trait) Occipital lobe: o Centre of our vision, contains primary and secondary visual areas o Primary visual cortex, V1, takes up most of this cortex detecting motion/colour o David Hubel: Nobel laureate Single cell recording of V1 in an awake cat, looked at binocular cells in V1 Blobs= colour sensitive, while interblobs= orientation sensitive (become active if something moved across the visual field) Measured activity of a single neuron, so was able to identify two different types of binocular cells in V1 Second study: put a patch on a newborn kitten for the first 6 weeks of its life never able to have binocular vision critical development period! o Cortical blindness: patient sees without knowing what they are seeing, blindsight Parietal lobe: o Contains primary somatosensory cortex, S1, responsible for the planning and control of movement o Visuospatial skills, the right lobe is for shifting visual attention o Sensory information into movement afferent and efferent neurons interact o Inferior parietal lobe: planning/initiating movement o Superior parietal lobe: regulating an ongoing movement o Lesion: ignore things in left visual space in copying and spontaneous drawing neglect, attention system has been damaged higher-order def
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