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Kin 1080B Test #2.docx

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Western University
Kinesiology 1080A/B
Matthew Heath

1 Kin 1088 Test #2 Topic #3- The Scientific Method  Goals of science: understand, describe, explain, predict  Empiricism: verification by observation o Proposals are subjected to a test o Perform an experiment and obtain data  hMT: selectively active when processing information o Juggling experiment: the group who practiced had an increase in density of hMT. After they stopped practice for only 2 weeks, the density shrunk back to baseline, exemplifying neuronal plasticity  Science: a process of gathering knowledge about the world  Experiment: tool of determining nature of relationship between variables, will confirm or disconfirm hypothesis o Independent variable: manipulated by experimenter o Dependent: what is measured, change is assumed to be the result of the independent variable Topic #4- Classifying and Identifying Motor Skills  Motor skills can be classified using three schemes: 1. Task organization a. Discrete skill: a skill that is organized such that the action is usually brief and has a well-defined beginning/end b. Serial skill: a type of skill characterized by serial discrete actions connected in a sequence, the order of the action is critical to performance success c. Continuous skill: a skill that unfolds without a recognizable beginning or end, in an ongoing and often repetitive fashion * Note: no skill is completely discrete or continuous; everything should be placed on a continuum 2. Motor and cognitive elements a. Motor skill: primary determinant of movement success is the quality of movement b. Cognitive skill: primary determinant of success is the quality of the performer’s decision-making *During skill learning we generally progress from cognitive to motor, most operate on a continuum 3. Level of environmental predictability (most used) a. Open skill: skill performed in an unpredictable or motion environment, requiring individuals to adopt their movement in response to the dynamic properties of the environment b. Closed skill: skill performed in an environment that is predictable or stationary and that allows to plan movement in advance Topic #5- Measurement, Interpretation and Evaluation of Motor Skill Performance  Measuring motor behaviour: o Performance outcome a. Measures of time and speed: performer who can accomplish an action in a given time is more efficient 2 i. Reaction Time: RT  the interval between the onset of a signal (stimulus) and the initiation of a response, SRT, CRT, DRT Premotor RT: period of time between onset of stimulus and beginning of muscle activity, measured with EMG Motor RT: period of time between onset of muscle activity and observable movement, time lag in muscle needed to overcome inertia of limb *Fractionation of reaction time: stimulus  premotor time  motor time  movement begins. Physiatrists are internal medicine specialists in rehabilitation, and use this technique to assess persons with a chronic illness such as Alzheimer’s ii. Movement Time: MT, the interval between the initiation of a response, and completion of the response iii. Total Response Time: TRT, RT+MT o Describing the movement a. Qualitative description: verbal descriptions, time-lapse photography b. Movement kinematics i. Displacement: spatial position of effector during movement ii. Velocity: rate of change of an object position with time iii. Acceleration: change in velocity of an object during movement *Kinematics of a reaching movement: with velocity, all shape stays constant. All skilled movement is bell-shaped, while jerky movement will not be bell-shaped. An asymmetrical velocity profile shows that there is damage in the nervous system o Measuring activity of the CNS a. Electromyography: electrical activity associates with muscle contraction, provides information regarding the temporal and intensity characteristics of the movement i. Tonic Activation: what EMG looks like if you electrically stimulate the muscle  all the extrafusal muscle fibres contract at the same time ii. Phasic Activation: what EMG looks like for voluntary contraction  allows extrafusal muscle fibres to contract at different times (lets muscles fire in a smooth sequence) b. Measures of brain activity: provide measures of when and what brain regions activate during movement i. Electroencephalography (EEG) and Magnetoencephalography (MEG): provide good temporal resolution for how the brain is reacting to movement, but doesn’t provide good spatial resolution (don’t know which parts are active) ii. Positron Emission Tomography (PET) and functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI): good spatial resolution, but poor temporal resolution. For this technique, inject patients with a radioactive substance, which attaches to the blood  Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation: Fadiya et al (1998)  TMS is corticospinal activity with high temporal sensitivity o Excitation/inhibition in the corticospinal tract on the moment of stimulation o Had people imagine they were doing a flexing/extension task o Tonic activation of muscle in the forearm: individual though about the movement, then this disrupted 3 Topic #6- Information Processing, a 3-Stage Approach  3-Stage model of information processing: stimulus identification  response selection selection  response programming  output o Stimulus-triggered actions are faster than intentional actions (gun battle scenario, person who draws first is intentional, needs high level control from the cortex, where processing is relatively slow. The second drawer uses stimulus, doesn’t rely on cortical networks, so much faster) A. Stimulus Identification Stage i. Stimulus Detection  Sensory information attained from external sources is detected and
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