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Physiology of Sport Midterm Textbook.docx

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Kinesiology 1088A/B
Bob Larose

Physiology of Sport Midterm Notes  Textbooks Chapter 1 – Introduction Sport and exercise psychology: is the scientific study of people and there behaviour in sport and exercise contexts and the practical application of that knowledge Two objectives for sport and exercise psychologists, (a) Understand the effects of psychological factors on physical or motor performance (b)Understand the effects of physical activity participation on psychological development health and well being Sport and exercise psychologists seek to achieve maximum participation, peak performance, personal satisfaction and development through participation Three specializes of sport and exercise psychologists (a) Conducting research a. They study what motivates and influences (b)Teaching (c) Consulting a. Develop physiological skills Distinguishing between two specialties  clinical sport psychology and educational sport psychology (A)Clinical sport psychology a. Deals with emotional disorders (B) Educational sport psychology a. Psychology of human movement Scientifically Derived Knowledge 1) Systematic approach 2) Control of condition 3) Empirical, based on observations 4) Critical, rigorous evaluation  Scientist ultimate goal is a theory, or a set on interrelated fact that present a systematic view of some phenomenon Studies Versus experiments  An experiment differs from a study in that the investigator manipulates the variables  Experimental and control group Reductionist, too complex to study all the variables of a situation simultaneously Limitation of science is its overemphasis on internal validity, favors the extent to whish results of an investigation can be attributed to the treatment use If a theory have no external validity, its internal validity doesn’t count for much Professional Practice Knowledge: the knowledge gained through experience  Scientific method  Systematic observation  Single case study  Shared public experience  Introspection (thoughts and feelings)  Intuition (A)Guided trail and error (B) More holistic (C) Do not have to wait to be scientifically verified (D)Fewer and less precise explanations (E) Bias (F) Less reliable and definitive Psychophysiological Orientation  The best way to study behaviour during sport and exercise is to examine the physiological process of the brain  Assess heart rate, brain wave activity, and muscle action potentials  BRAIN Social – Psychological  Behavior is determined by a complex interaction between the environment and the personal make up of the athlete or exerciser  How social environment influences the behaviour and how the behaviour influences the social –psychological environment Cognitive-Behavioral Orientation  Athlete’s cognitions or thoughts and behaviour determine behaviour  Assess self-confidence anxiety goal orientations, imagery and intrinsic motivation  Behaviour is determined by both the environment and cognition with thoughts and interpretation playing an especially important role Chapter 3  Motivation Motivation: the direction and intensity of one’s effort Direction, seeks out approaches or is attracted to by certain situations Intensity, how much effort Three Approaches to Motivation I) Trait- Centered View (participant centered view) 1. Motivation based on individual characteristics, ignores environment, personal make up, goals, needs, and personality. II) Situation-Centered View 1. Motivation is determined by situation, coach game situation, not most effective way to analyses a persons motivation III)Interactional Centered View 1. Both the person and the situation, a combination, how these two interact, cant just decided based on one factor Building Motivation (5 guidelines) 1) Consider both situation and traits a. Analyze and respond not only to a players personality but also to the interaction of personal and situational characteristics 2) Multiple Motives a. Motives are critical in influencing exercise participation b. People participate for more then one reason c. Competing motives for involvement d. Shared and unique motives e. Cultural emphasis affects motives f. Observe participants and continue to monitor motives i. Observe ii. Informally talk to others iii. Ask the participant 3) Change the environment to enhance motives a. Meet all the needs of all participants i. Competitive and recreational b. Provide multiple opportunities c. Adjust to individuals within group 4) Influence Motivation a. Your actions (whether good or bad effect motivation) b. You may not recognize the importance of your actions 5) Use Behavior modification to change undesirable participant motives a. Behaviour modification techniques to change undesirable motive and strength weak motives  Perform not just do to motivation,  As a leader you are critical to the motivational environment and you influence motivation both directly and indirectly Achievement Motivation (competitiveness): refers to a person effort to master a task, become better, overcome an obstacle, ect. Competitiveness: a disposition to strive for satisfaction when making comparisons with come standard of excellence in the presence of evaluative others Effect of Motivations  Choice of activity  Effort to pursue goals  Intensity of effort  Persistence in the face of failure Theories of Achievement Motivation 01) Need achievement Theory a. Personality factors of motives b. Situational factors
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