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Western University
Kinesiology 1088A/B
Bob Larose

Chapter 11 – Psychological Skills Training Psychological Skill Training (PST – systematic and consistent practice of mental or psychological skills - Regulating arousal levels, enhancing confidence and maintaining motivation - Mental toughness – control, commitment, challenge, confidence - Why is PST neglected: o Lack of knowledge o Lack of time o Misunderstandings about psychological skills - Myths: o PST is for problem athletes only o PST is for elite training only o PST provides quick fix solutions o PST is not useful - Knowledge base: elite athletes + athlete/coach experiences - Three phases: education acquisition  practice (automate skills, integrate skills, simulate skills) - Self-regulation – 5 stage model (Problem identification Commitment  Execution  Environmental management  Generalization) o Ex. I overthink movements during fitness tests, so I commit to wanting to change through the execution of practicing movements to the point of second nature. I manage the environment by adapting skills to different fitness tests and then use learned skills to my exam testing. - Implemented by sport psychologists/consultants during off season or preseason - Building a PST program: o Asses athlete’s needs o Determine which psychological skills to include (foundation, performance, personal development, team skills) o Designing a schedule – preparatory phase, competitive phase, peaking phase o Evaluating the program – (objective, room for change, provides feedback) - Common problems – lack of conviction, lack of time, lack of sport knowledge, lack of follow-up Chapter 15 – Goal Setting Objective vs. Subjective goals Types of goals – outcome (relative to competition), performance (relative to previous performance), process (relative to sport-specific movement) Why GS works – indirect thought process view, direct mechanistic view (directs attention to important elements, mobilize performer efforts, prolong performer persistence, foster development of new learning) Principles of goal setting: 1. set specific goals 2. set moderately difficult but realistic goals 3. set long and short term goals 4. set performance, process and outcome goals 5. set practice and competition goals 6. record goals 7. develop goal achievement strategies 8. consider the participant’s personality and motivation 9. foster an individual’s goal commitment 10. provide goal support 11. provide evaluation and feedback about goals Development of group goals: 1. establish long-term goals first 2. establish clear paths of short-term goals en route to long-term goals 3. involve all members of team in establishing team goals 4. monitor progress toward team goals 5. reward progress made toward team goals 6. foster collective team confidence or efficacy concerning team goals SMARTS – specific, measurable, action oriented, realistic, timely, self-determined Design of goal-setting system 1. preparation and planning – assess abilities/needs + set goals in diverse areas + identify influences on goal- setting systems + plan goal achievement strategies 2. education and acquisition – schedule meetings + focus on one goal at a time + 3. Implementation/goal follow-up/evaluation - identify appropriate goal evaluation procedures + provide support and encouragement + plan for goal re-evaluation Presence of other as a motivator – others can be spectators and/or cofactors - Social Facilitation Theory: you perform faster and more intensely when people are watching o Increased arousal  DOMINATION, improved performance of well learned responses, impaired performance in new skills in presence of others - Evaluation Apprehension: not just the presence others, but the fact that they judge you o Others are associated with praise/blame or reward/punish o Audience either arouses or calms resulting in different variations of performance - Cognitive Approach: SFT + EA = performer doesn’t just react, but is proactive (interprets social situation  predicts possible audience reactions  alters behaviour to appeal to these reactions) o Previous experiences, age, gender, personality influence individual’s subjective interpretation of the social situation Home field – most comfortable in your home rink - Advantage (Varca 1980) o Functional aggression – more rebounds, blocks, steals o Dysfunctional aggression – more fouls, gave up more turnovers Implications – not much you can do to eliminate the stressful side of observers but: 1. Eliminate evaluative apprehension and control arousal especially when learning new skills 2. Knowledge is power – inform athletes about common physiological reactions to stress, how audience can influence performance, and the effects stress and anxiety can have on performance 3. Perfect practice – quality over quantity (overlearn skills/techniques/strategy, train by stimulating audience effects, pair high and low anxious athletes) 4. Specificity – arrange practice sessions (skill and stress reaction situations) so they will approximate game conditions Chapter 4 – Arousal, Stress and Anxiety Arousal – blend of physiological and psychological activity in a person referring to intensity dimension for motivation - Continuum of arousal (comatose  rage beast) Anxiety – a negative emotional state characterized by nervousness, worry, and apprehension and associated with activation or arousal of the body - Cognitive anxiety vs. somatic anxiety - State anxiety – cognitive state anxiety vs. somatic state anxiety, perceived control? - Trait anxiety – a person’s disposition to perceive threats, somatic trait vs. worry trait vs. concentration disruption - SCAT – questionnaire that assesses the degree of trait anxiety, state anxiety, and overall effect of anxiety during competition Finding – no difference in trait or state anxiety between: - Participants vs. non-participants and most-skilled vs. least skilled competitors - State anxiety gradually decreases with age and experiences - High trait anxiety individuals experience higher state anxiety Arousal theories – relationship between arousal and performance 1. Drive Theory – increase in arousal state anxiety  increased performance (ex. more psyched up, better performance) a. Very little evidence, if anything this is correct only in cases where the skill is extremely well learnt 2. Inverted U-hypothesis – low arousal levels  performance below par, increase arousal  increase performance up to an optimal level a. Generally accepted, critics question the shape of the curve and if there is only one point b. Individual Zones of Optimal Functioning (IZOF) – not a midpoint, but an individual bandwidth 3. Multidimensional anxiety theory – increases in cognitive state anxiety lead to decrease in performance 4. Catastrophe model (Hardy) – arousal +cognitive anxiety  performance, performance is in U-shape only when athlete is not worried/has low cognitive state anxiety, however, high cognitive anxiety at increasing arousal, improves performance up to a certain point before it impairs performance 5. Reversal theory (Kerr) – arousal effects on performance depends on individual’s interpretation of his arousal level a. High arousal = excitement or anxiety b. Low arousal = relation or boredom c. Best performance is when high arousal = excitement Relaxation response – basically meditation without the spiritual/religious significance - Meditative state for mind – keen awareness, effortlessness, relaxation, spontaneity, and focused attention - 4 elements – quiet place, comfortable position, mental device, passive attitude Autogenic training – exercises designed to produce sensations (warmth and heaviness) - hypnosis – main goal is to reproduce sensations (heaviness in extremities  warmth in extremities regulation of cardiac activity  regulation of breathing  abdominal warmth – cooling of the forehead) Hypnosis – gradual progression into a trance-like state during which goal directed suggestions are given by leader - self-hypnosis can be sued to free mind to allow positive goal suggestions to be achieved Matching hypothesis – the hypothesis states that an anxiety management technique should be matched to a particular anxiety problem, basically saying that management techniques should be individualized Multimodal anxiety reduction packages – alleviates both cognitive and somatic anxiety while providing systematic strategies for the rehearsal of coping procedures under stimulated stressful conditions - Cognitive-affective stress management training (SMT) – 4 separate phases: o Pre-treatment assessment o Treatment rationale o Skill acquisition o Skill rehearsal - Stress inoculation training (SIT) – exposed to and learns to cope with stress in increasing amounts Dealing with acute problems: 1. Negative thought stopping a. Self-talk – substitute neg. with pos. immediately using cue words, images, music, etc. i. 6 dimension of self-talk 1. Self-determined or assigned 2. Perspective – intern vs. external 3. Valence – positive vs. negative 4. Direction – perception of motivation or de-motivation 5. Intensity – impact on motivation 6. Frequency – how often is it used ii. Refocus – park negative thought and come back to it after competition 2. Breath control – fight instinctual changes in breathing patterns in response to biological alarm a. Inhale for 4  pause at full breath – exhale for 8  repeat 3-4 times focusing on feeling of relaxation 3. Other immediate coping techniques – attention control training, centering, mental rehearsal 4. ON site relaxation – self-monitoring of somatic tension levels, smile, have fun, practice successful situations, take your time, stay focused, have a game plan 5. Arousal induction – increase breathing rate, act energized, positive self-talk, energizing music, arousing imagery, precomp. Workout Chapter 22 – Incentive and motivation Incentive motivation – value attached to the possible outcomes (goals) available to participants in sports and physical activity, anticipate satisfaction and enjoyment from participation, expectances confirmed through actual experience which influences continue participation Topic has been researched in 2 ways: 1. Identify main incentives that influence choice, persistence and effort of participation 2. Identify the reasons why participants drop out of an activity Findings: 1. Individual has unique reasons for participation 2. Multiple motives operating at various strengths at any one time 3. Most dominant motives = affiliation (make/be with friends), excellence (skill development to the highest level), excitement/stress, success/status (winning/recognition), fitness 4. Weaker motives (Secondary) = independence power, aggression, influence of others 5. No differences in I-M for – age, gender, type of sport, culture 6. Reasons for discontinuing are also multiple and complex 7. Other sports/activities interest you more than the current sport, so you drop out 8. Negative reasons for dropping out – lack of ability/success/playing time/enjoyment/support, injury, boredom, dislike coach/ing style 9. Negative reasons have more impact for younger less experienced participants Implication – coach must maximize #3 and discover which one appeals most to individuals Chapter 5 – Competition and cooperation Competition as a process: - Attitudes – competitiveness is a learned behaviour and is influenced by the social environment and varies by culture, personality, and age - Personality dispositions – need for achievement (seek out challenges where success is in doubt) vs. fear of failure (avoidance of competitive situations) - Ability – relationship between ability and challenges of the task influence competitive drive o Participants equal in ability  ↑competitiveness o If there is inequity, activity becomes cooperative learning to even out ability - Motives – earl success  ↑ competitive drive and vice versa o Suggested to have more cooperative style games at younger age and wait until early teens for highly competitive games - Ex. CCWC (objective competitive situation) is seen by me as an achievement in itself and an event where I will gain experience on the world stage and medal (subjective competitive situation). We have practiced 5 times a week with workouts and are prepared for this; I am calm during marshalling (response). We earned 3 bronze and 1 silver, it was a good haul, but it could have been better. I gained a lot of experience and have found something that I am truly passionate about (consequences). Cooperation - Orlick 1978 – design of a game will largely influence the predominant behavioral response, competitive sports and games have become rigid, judgemental, highly organized and excessively goal oriented with only one winner and many losers, children become conditioned to the importance of winning - Coakley 1997 – youth coming together and playing on their own are concerned with action, personal involvement, team equality, and opportunities to reaffirm friendships o BL: informal games are action centered, while organized sport is rule centered, in order to achieve positive outcomes of unstructured sport, make organized spot more child centered, focusing on skill development, fun, and personal growth - Reduce competition and experiences of failure ins port for younger children – don’t ask “hey did you win or lose” - Develop positive behaviors and attitudes about sport and reduce or eliminate hostility and conflict, emphasize cooperative elements of participation - Promote common goals, group productivity and achievement situations (did you work well together vs. did you win) - Reduce stress of competitive involvement especially in younger participants - Participants typically experience higher levels of competitive stress: o Individual sports o ↑importance of game o Contest is lost or tied o Individual has high trait anxiety - Implications – emphasize cooperative activities at younger age, relate outcomes of contest to prior goals, define what winning and losing mean to you and the team, competition/cooperation is not inherently good/bad (must have balance of both) o Coach must put winning into proper perspective and soothe emotional effects of losing Chapter 14 – Self-confidence Definition – general feeling of mastery and belief that you can successfully perform a task - State SC vs. trait SC Self-efficacy (Bandura) – perception of one’s ability to perform a task successfully, basically a situation-specific form of self-confidence - Combines with an incentive to succeed and the ability to succeed to produce a successful performance Sources of S-E – 6 principal sources - Performance accomplishments - ↑success  ↑level of S-E - Vicarious experiences – seeing someone else doing the skill you are learning increase S-E o Modeling = attention, retention, motor reproduction, motivation (affects the other stages) - Verbal persuasion - Imaginal experiences - Physiological states – influence S-E when individuals associate aversive physiological arousal with poor performance - Emotional states Sport confidence (Vealey) – belief (state ability or trait ability) by an athlete that they possess the ability to be successful in sport Self-efficacy: A. influences the degree of effort and persistence given to a task and subsequently the performance of the task a. ex. Weinberg (197) Leg extension endurance – test subjects were in direct competition against either track athlete or post-knee surgery rehab subject, given two trials and told they lost the first one b. performance differences were maximized after a failure situation B. self-efficacy is both a cause and an effect of performance a. ex. Feltz (1982) – tested female college students of a backward dive performance and evaluated approached/avoidance tendencies b. first dive successful  ↑se
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