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Notes From Midterm Onwards.docx

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Western University
Kinesiology 1088A/B
Robert La Rose

Kin 1088 – Notes From Midterm Onwards PSYCHOLOGICAL SKILLS TRAINING (PST) Definition: the systematic and consistent practice of mental or psychological skills - psychological skills can be learned but must be practiced and integrated into your training routine - Psychological factors account for most day-to-day fluctuations in performance Myths… - psychological skills are “innate” (can’t be learned) - only for “problem athletes” - only effective for elite athletes - provide “quick fix” solutions - not useful – “hocus pocus” Components of PST programs 1. Education phase  learn the nature & basis of the skills and understand how it influences performance 2. Acquisition phase  structured training program to develop skills and techniques 3. Practice phase  integrate skill development into practice & competitive settings *helps make the exercise fun & helps meet everyone’s needs. WHO – sport psychology consultant, coach WHEN – pre-season or off-season, 3-6 month duration, ongoing process integrated into practice NEEDS ASSESSMENT – evaluate strengths & weaknesses, oral interview & psych. inventories, performance profiling WHAT – which skills to include?, scheduling, evaluation & follow-up. PROBLEMS – lack of: conviction, time, knowledge, follow up 1. Psychological Skills (initial focus) 2. Psychological methods (secondary focus) 1. Psychological Skills - personal qualities to be attended or developed (i.e. target behaviours) Performance Skills  optimal arousal (mental, physical)  attention control Foundation Skills  Self confidence  Volition (motivation)  self esteem Facilitative Skills  Interpersonal relations  Lifestyle management 2. Psychological Methods - procedures/techniques used to develop psychological skills (vehicle used to attain skills) examples: goal setting, relaxation, attributions, imagery, though processes PRESENCE OF OTHERS AS A MOTIVATOR Others = spectators/audience, observers OR coactors (others doing same task – rivals) A) Social Facilitation Theory - the mere presence of others serves to increase arousal levels & cause a response to occur faster or more intensely i) increased arousal will increase the likelihood that an individual’s DOMINANT response will occur ii) in simple, well learned skills, correct responses & improved performances occur in the presence of others. iii) In complex or newly learned skills, the dominant response may be incorrect (old or bad habits) and performance will be impaired in the presence of others B) Evaluation Apprehension - it is not just the presence of others that causes arousal. Rather, it is the expectation that those who are there will judge or evaluate the QUALITY of the performance that increases arousal and influences performance effectiveness. - we learn to associate others with praise/blame or reward/punish type of evaluations - an audience can thus have either an arousing or a calming effect and produce resultant variations in performance or behaviour C) Cognitive Approach (Borden, 1980) - incorporates both of the above theories but takes it a step further - the performer is not simply a reactor who responds to an audience or to a coach - the performer is a proactive participant who: i) interprets the social situation (thru perceptions, expectations) ii) predicts the possible audience reactions iii) alters behaviour to appeal to this reaction iv) previous experience, age, gender, and personality will all influence the individual’s subjective interpretation of the social situation v) the size of the audience is not as important as how the individual interprets the size within the situation (hostile vs supportive) vi) expertise – interpret whether the crowd can accurately asses the quality of the performance vii) supportiveness – quality of social support from those present Home Field A) Advantage (Varca, 1980) – functional aggression (home) = more rebounds, blocks, steals AND dysfunctional aggression (away) – more fouls, turnovers B) Disadvantages (Beaumeister, 1984) – increased self-consciousness distracts from the automatic execution of skills (playoffs) Implications There is very little that can be done to eliminate the stressful effects of the presence of others at sporting events, BUT: 1. Eliminate evaluative apprehension and control arousal especially when learning new skills 2. Knowledge is power – educate and inform participants about: - common physiological reactions to stress so they recognize when they occur - how audiences can influence performance - the effects that stress and anxiety can have on performance (cont’d) 3. Perfect Practice (Practice makes perfect) - over learn skills, techniques, strategy - train by simulating audience effects - pair high and low anxious athletes (veteran and rookie buddies) 4. Specificity – arrange practice sessions (both skills and stress reaction situations) so they will approximate game conditions (last seconds or minutes, special teams) AROUSAL, STRESS, ANXIETY Arousal - a blend of physiological & psychological activation - the intensity of motivation at any particular time - activation or excitation ranging on a continuum from sleep to hyper-intensity - caused by anticipation – of an event, threat, or worry Stress - Selye (1956)  fight or flight - the result of a substantial imbalance between the physical and psychological demands of a task and one’s response capabilities under conditions where failure has important consequences - 4 stages: i) environmental demands ii) perception of demand (threat) iii) stress response (anxiety) iv) behavioural consequences (outcome/performance) Anxiety - a negative emotional state characterized by nervousness, worry, & apprehension. - has a cognitive (mental) component (worry, apprehension, etc.) AND - has a somatic (physiological) component (increased heart/breathing rate, sweating, nausea, “butterflies”, faint) Arousal Theories 1. Drive Theory (Spense, 1966) - performance = function (habit/drive) - linear relationship between arousal & performance (as arousal increases, so does performance) - impact dependent on how well the task is learned (social facilitation theory) *no longer much support for this theory  note: arousal/stress/anxiety not always a bad thing 2. Inverted-U Hypothesis - there are optimal levels of arousal - once you reach an optimal level, performance deteriorates if you continue to become more aroused or activated - is a zone not a point - varies from person to person - different tasks have different optimal levels 3. Catastrophe theory (Hardy, 1996) - Works off the concepts of the inverted U theory - somatic anxiety can have markedly different effects on performance depending on the cognitive anxiety (worry) being experienced - if worry is low – inverted U relationship, a gradual decline - of worry is high – activation reaches an optimal threshold after which there is a dramatic or “catastrophic” decline in performance - difficult to recover from one experienced 4. Reversal theory (Apter & Kerr, 1984/85) - it is the cognitive interpretation of one’s arousal level that impacts performance - high arousal = excitement or anxiety - low arousal = relaxation or boredom  pleasant or unpleasant - individuals are subject to very rapid changes or reversals in their interpretation of the same event (ex- parachuting; excited on the way up but anxiety takes over on Anxiety (Spielberger, 1966) (Need for achievement vs. Fear of Failure) – two psychological fundamental traits - these are personality traits, independent of one another and stable over long periods of time - they are basic traits that will influence how arousal will affect a person in a specific situation Two distinct parts of anxiety… Trait Anxiety - stable personality tendency to perceive situations as threatening when they really are not (pessimistic) State Anxiety - a changing emotional state characterized by tension and apprehension and by autonomic nervous system reactions ** Can measure these types of anxiety with inventories like SCAT (sports competition anxiety test – Martens 1977) SCAT - assess the degree of the personality trait of anxiety - assess the degree of stress before, during, and after an event (state anxiety) - assess the overall effect of anxiety during a competition findings: no difference in trait or state anxiety levels between participants & non-participants, most- skilled vs. least-skills competitors. State anxiety gradually decreases with age and experience. High trait anxious people experience higher feelings of state anxiety prior to, during, and after competitions. Trait anxiety levels have no influence on ultimate ability levels. Sources of stress – individualized 1. Situational a) importance of the event or segments of it b) uncertainty of outcome of life events 2. Personal a) level of trait anxiety b) self-esteem c) social physique evaluation theory Other factors influencing one’s perception of stress in a competitive situation: - individual or team sport - expectations for success - winning vs. losing or trying to do one’s best (outcome vs. performance) *reference to goal setting - attribution to outcome-learned helplessness Fear of Success (Horner, 1985)  withhold effort or involvement so don’t have to live up to levels attained in previous best performance. Effects of anxiety 1. Somatic  interferes with muscle coordination; stimulates contraction or tension in antagonistic muscle groups 2. Psychological  distraction of attention; think about physical problems and not focus on the task at hand; narrowing of the visual field and elimination of relevant cues. - Anxiety results in a negative cycle or spiral (more anxious, more detriment to performance; poorer performance, more anxiety) - Must break the cycle & control arousal (stress & anxiety) - Be in control but relaxed *Coaches and players must learn various techniques to help them cope with the anxiety that arises from competition Coping  a dynamic process of constantly changing cognitive & behavioural efforts to manage specific internal or external demands that are viewed as exceeding one’s resources. (Lazarus & Folkman, 1984) …can be: 1. problem focused – manage problem 2. emotion focused – regulating emotional responses Techniques used to COPE with State Anxiety: 1. Self-Awareness – monitoring own tension levels – recognize & accept (can be facilitative or debilitative) 2. Dissociation – change the focus of attention from the stressor to a more neutral situation Prevention of chronic (long term) Problems: - can’t sleep - restless & fidgety - pre-game nausea 1. Physiological (somatic) technique  used to reduce physical tension levels + Progressive Relaxation (Jacobsen, 1938) – contraction & relaxation of major muscle groups in a sequential order (often use audio taped instructions). + Biofeedback – use of instrumentation to provide signals that indicate current & subsequent levels of physiological tension. (heart rate, blood pressure, etc) 2. Cognitive Techniques  used to reduce worry & negative thoughts + Meditation (relaxation response) – quiet the mind, passive process – don’t force it, use neutral key words or sounds (mantra), count exhalations – lose count start over + Autogenic training – exercise designed to produce feelings of warmth & heaviness + Hypnosis – gradual progression into a trance-like state during which goal directed suggestions are given by leader + Matching hypothesis – match anxiety with style of intervention (cognitive & somatic) Multimodal reduction packages SMT – stress management training – - An integrated cognitive and somatic intervention strategy. - Accounts for situation, physiological response, and actual behaviour SIT – stress inoculation training – - inoculation: something that you take in order to dissipate a potential threat (ex, the flu shot). - gradual exposure to/coping with increasingly stressful situations Dealing with ACUTE (more immediate) Problems - immediately prior to or during an activity; help participant focus on the task at hand; negative thought stopping (positive thinking) A) self talk – stop thinking negatively – substitute positive thoughts immediately - use cue words, images, music, etc. - self talk = a relatively new area of research -  definition: an internal dialogue through which a person interprets feelings and perceptions, regulates (changes) evaluations & convictions, and gives self-instructions & reinforcement 6 Dimensions of self talk: a) self determined or assigned b) perspective – internal (voice in head) vs. external (out loud) c) valence – positive vs. negative d) directions – perception of motivating or demotivating e) intensity – impact on motivation f) frequency – how often is it used Some or all of the dimensions of self-talk can influence performance positively or negatively. B. Refocus – “parking” - recognize negative thought or problem but set it aside during competition - realize can’t deal /w it now but will come back later at a more appropriate time. - physically “park” the though (touch) and then come back and retouch to reacquire when ready to deal with it. C. Breath Control Breathing is usually automatic and spontaneous but you can take over control of your breathing pattern and direct your breathing response - when anxiety or fright triggers a biological alarm response, the normal pattern of breathing changes – sharp inhale and hold breath rather than rhythmical exhale. - You must first recognize that your breathing response has changed and then do something about it (self-monitoring) Other Immediate Coping Techniques - Attention control training - Centering - Mental rehearsal (imagery) On-Site Relaxation a) self-monitoring of somatic tension levels b) SMILE – takes the edge off tension, relax jaw, neck & hands c) have FUN – enjoy the experience, look forward to the activity d) practice stressful situations (simulate pressure) e) take your time – slow down the pace, maintain regular routines f) stay focused on/in the present – leave last play behind (can’t change it), forget about “what happens if?” g) have a game plan – easier decision making, scouting & spotting opponents Arousal Induction (How to Get/Be Aroused) a) consciously increase breathing rate b) act energized c) positive self-talk d) energizing music e) arousing imagery f) warm up/work out Goal Setting Goal  a target, standard, or objective goal setting  a process of establishing a target or objective in specific behavioural terms Three Main Types of Goals: a) outcome goals = win/lose b) performance goals = how well you play/personal best (preferred due to greater personal control) c) process goals = actions to execute in order to perform better What does goal setting do? Direct Effect: 1. directs attention and action (choice) 2. Mobilizes energy (effort/vigor) 3. Prolongs effect (persistence) 4. Encourages the development of strategy to attain goals (action plan) Indirect Effect:  influences performance by waking on psychological states (anxiety, confidence, satisfaction, attention, etc.) Benefits of goal Setting 1. Increases productivity & improves quality of work 2. Clarifies expectations 3. Relieves boredom 4. Provides personal recognition 5. Increases personal & task enjoyment Goals can be set for: a) training reasons (log book) b) practice sessions (areas to work on) c) competitive events d) team social events * for each of these sessions or events, goals can be focused on:  conditioning  knowledge/strategy  performance skills  attitude/behaviour Goal setting is an extremely powerful technique for enhancing performance, but it must be implemented correctly Meta-analysis (combined studies) (Locke, Landers) - 90% +ive outcomes - avg 16% increase - goal setting has the strongest effect on performance & satisfaction of any motivational technique WARNING  don’t overload athletes with too many goals at one time – concentrate on a few of the most important ones Principles of Goal Setting The most effective goals are the ones that are: 1. Relatively difficult, challenging, but attainable (realistic to achieve) 2. Specific (action oriented) & measurable (quantifiable) 3. Within or geared to the ability potential of the participants note: the coach may need to provide a lot of input when inexperienced participants set goals as they may not know the task demands or be able to assess their own skill levels or potential. 4. Public & formally committed to by the participant – written/verbal contract (positive) 5. Flexible & adjustable (up or down) at all times 6. Have specific time frames & dates 7. Sequential & prioritized but limited in number 8. Long term goals progressively linked by intermediate & short term goals (8-10 week program most effective) 9. Accompanied by feedback (KR= knowledge of results) and possibly use with rewards 10. Supported by the coach who is a partner & facilitator in the goal setting process (commitment and ownership); educate significant others about feedback (win?) 11. Evaluate and reinforce goal attainment on effort before performance outcome 12. Do not tie the goals to one’s self-worth (take personal risk/embarrassment out of goal attainment) 13. Develop goal achievement strategies (action plans) that are unique to each individual or group Success in goal setting seems to be independent of: - age - gender - educational level - personality disposition Follow up to Goal Setting 1. Identify appropriate evaluation procedures & evaluate on a regular/frequent basis (manager chart stats during practices & games) 2. Encourages progress toward stated goals not just goal attainment 3. Regularly evaluate & adjust goals & strategies to achieve them to make them more realistic (especially short term basis) Group Goal Setting Attainment of specific standards of group (not individual) proficiency within a specified time or event Practice  usually process oriented focusing on effort Game  more focused on outcomes & implementation of specific skills and strategies As a Leader a) involve all participants in the formulation of group goals (commitment) b) strive for consensus – work for compromise; facilitate don’t dictate c) decide on strategies to achieve goals including levels of effort, commitment, behaviour, and consequences d) publicly post goals & update/evaluate progress regularly (each week or after each game) SMARTS goals S – Specific goals M – measurable/quantifiable A – action oriented R – realistic/achievable T – timely (reasonable time) S – self-determined (input) INCENTIVE MOTIVATION Definition: the value attached to the possible outcomes (goals_ available to participants in sports & physical activity. - anticipate satisfaction & enjoyment from participation - expectancies confirmed (or not) through actual experience which influences continues participation (motivation) Research Topic in Two Ways: a) identify main incentives that influence choice, persistence, and effort of participation b) identify the reasons why participants drop out of an activity General Findings 1. Each individual has his/her own unique reasons for participation 2. there are usually multiple motives operating at various strengths at any one time 3. the most dominant motives that have been identified are: - affiliation (move or be with friends) - excellence (skill development at the highest level) - excitement/stress (thrill seeking) - success (winning) & status (recognition) - fitness and energy release 4. weaker but still present as distinct motives are: - independence (able to do on own) - power (control over others) - aggression (intimidation) - influence of others (parents, peers, friends) 5. There are no differences observed in incentive motivation when analyzed for: age, gender, type of sport, culture. *note: having fun is often cited as a motive but it is suggested that the fun is really the result of other incentive motive fulfillment. 6. the reasons for discontinuing in an activity are also multiple and complex. ie – failure to achieve satisfaction of one or more primary incentives is weighted against those that have been attained 7. other sports or activities start to have a greater interest than the one that you are currently involved in (conflict of interest) so you drop out (sport-specific vs sport-general drop outs) 8. the negative reasons for dropping out are: - lack of ability (failure to improve skills) - lack of success (winning) - lack of playing time - lack of enjoyment - injury - boredom - lack of support from significant others - dislike of the coach or his/her style (win at all cost attitude) - pressure from parents 9. Negative reasons have more impact & are more important for younger or less experienced participants Implications The coach / leader must deliberately increase the opportunities for at least the major incentives to be satisfied. To do so, they need to engage in a process to attempt to discover what incentives each participant bring to the activity (IMI- incentive motivation index) a) affiliation - place value on all roles - allow or plan social activities beyond the sport setting - encourage mutual support & learn unity (cohesion) b) excellence - helps set realistic personal & group goals relative to ability levels - provide for as much skill development as possible (over learning by doing repeatedly in practice) c) stress/excitement - provide variation & novelty in practice - give participants many challenging opportunities & expectations d) Status/success - don’t over emphasize winning but don’t ignore its importance - promote all roles, effort & performance e) fitness - provide all participants with the opportunity to be active & involved - conditioning is valuable part of any activity but do not use as punishment. COMPETITION AS A MOTIVATOR Competition (definition) – strong motivational force embedded in all sporting situations and in many recreational settings as well. However, the coach or leader has very little control over it. Descriptors – a situational process that is either zero sum or non-zero sum (reward structures) and is either direct or indirect Cooperation – working together with other individuals to accomplish a task or to reach a common goal ~ Competition and cooperation can be at work at the same time on any team or group (ie. Cooperate with teammates vs opponents but compete with them for starting role or playing time). ~ competition = fairness VS decompetition = rival The competition process (Martens, 1975) - each individual experiences the competitive process differently and it may vary from one situation to another within the same person - the competitive process is primarily focused on social evaluation (comparison with others or standards) - linked stages often influenced by external feedback & rewards 1. Objective competitive situation - comparison criteria is unknown by others who can evaluate performance 2. Subjective competitive situation - how the person perceives the objective situation - 3 orientations: a) competitiveness b) win oriented c) goal oriented 3. Response - approach/avoid - behavioural (type of opponent) - physiological – arousal - psychological – internal & external factors 4. Consequences - positive or negative - perception of consequence - effects subsequent events Inner Factors From Diagram a) Attitudes – competitiveness is a learned behaviour & is influenced by the social environment and varies in intensity by culture, personality, and age. b) personality dispositions – need for achievement (seek out challenges where success is in doubt) VS. fear of failure (avoidance of competitive situations) c) ability – the relationship between ability and the challenges of the task influence the competitive drive - competitiveness is strongest when participants are relatively equal in ability - if unequal in ability, the activity becomes cooperative learning until more equal in ability - competitiveness is strongest if participants have high ability - if low in ability and made to compete, effort, performance, and interest are reduced. d) motives – early success increases competitive drive while early failure decreases it and either circumstance can influence the participant’s motives for future competition - suggest more cooperative style games (rec. leagues) at younger ages - wait till early teens for highly competitive games and teams - ensure some initial success if possible (i.e. scheduling, controlled ex- games) Cooperation (Orlick & Coakley) - reduce competitiveness and experiences of failure in sport for younger children - develop positive behaviours and attitudes about sport and reduce or eliminate hostility and conflict = emphasis on cooperative elements of participation - promote common goals, group productivity, and achievement situations - reduce the stress of competitive involvement, especially in younger participants - participants generally experience higher levels of competitive stress when:  individual sport and not team sport  importance of game situation increases  contest is lost or tied  when the person has high trait anxiety  (can disrupt sleeping and eating routines) Implications 1. Emphasize cooperative activities at younger ages 2. Relate the outcome of the contest to the goals set prior to the competition 3. Define what winning and losing mean to you and the team  losing may hurt, but it’s not a bad thing  the coach must act as a stabilizing influence when stress results from losing  one of the most important responsibilities for the coach is to put winning into proper perspective and being there to sooth or mediate emotional side effects of losing  success is not forever and failure is not fatal 4. Competition is not inherently good or bad, neither is cooperation. An overemphasis on either (winning at all costs or never competing) is inappropriate.  We need to integrate both aspects into the games we play  Recognize that competitiveness is pervasive in today’s society and will dominate over cooperation  Allow and plan for it – don’t attempt to eliminate it completely = frustration when it won’t go away. SELF CONFIDENCE AS A MOTIVATOR - It is possible to have too much or too little confidence Self confidence – a general feeling of mastery (personality trait), belief you can successfully perform a task Self-efficacy (Bandura) – confidence in a specific situation (not necessarily confident in all situations) (state) - the strength of an individual conviction that he/she can successfully execute a behaviour, perform a task, or handle a situation to produce a desired result. - self-efficacy combined with an inc
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