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Kinesiology 1088A/B
Bob Larose

Sport P Lec 1 September-13-10 8:37 PM Objectives of Sport and Exercise Psychology A] Consider how psychological factors effect an individual B] How participation in sport and exercise effects an individual psychological development, health and well being Comprehensive Objective: Obtaining an understanding through : description, explanation and predication, of the behaviour Behaviour= a unique way of responding to all stimuli Performance= goal directed behaviour for the purpose of short term execution of a discrete task 1] Behaviour: behaviour of athletes determines by the environment 2] Psychophysiological: study impact of physiological responses to activity on behaviour 3] Cognitive- Behavioural: behaviour determines by ones interpretation of both environment and cognitions (thoughts) Professional Approaches Clinical Counselling: eating disorders Crisis Intervention: Psychological assessment Performance enhancement Consultation and program development Prevention and treatment of injuries Sport Psychologist VS. Consultant What is Sport Psychology? To understand human behaviour and performance in sport and exercise, what factors do we need to study? Visual/Auditory/Experiential Kolbs learning cycle (1) Concrete Experience (CE) (actual) (4) Active Experimentation (AE) ( TRY OUT ELSEWHERE) (2) Reflective Observation ( RO) Think about what happened (3) Abstract Conceptualization (AC) make sense of it Method/ ways of knowing Scientific method/ experiments Systematic Observation Single case study Shared public experience Introspection ( thoughts and feelings) Sport P Lec 2 September-15-10 9:16 AM Ways of knowing in sport psychology Any systematic study of sport psychology should include the following stages: 1. Observation & description (what is) Identify or define the essential characteristics 2. Explanation & analysis(why) Attempt to provide reason for the findings in stage 1. 3. Prediction(what will be) Use the knowledge obtained to predict future occurrences. 4. Control (how can we?) What can we control to change the behaviour or performance? Scientific Method Founded on the concept of Objectivity (lack of bias-researchers are detached observers and manipulators of nature) It is a process or method of learning that uses systematic, controlled, empirical, and critical filtering of knowledge acquired through experience. Six steps of the Scientific Method 1. Formulation of a specific hypothesis 2. Design of the investigation 3. Accumulation of data (heart rate, blood samples etc) 4. Classification of data( chart form, graph) 5. Development of generalizations (if you work out at a certain rate, able to make a good increase in cardiovasicular fitness) 6. Verification of results(testing another group of people) These steps provide scientists with a way of collecting reliable and valid (internal) data that can then be used to develop generalizable theories and laws of human behaviour. However, this is a slow and conservative process that often lacks external validity (practicality) Professional Practice Knowledge (generating knowledge that is less reliable and has bias built in to it) Holistic and Experiential (guided trial & error learning reflecting the complex interplay of many factors) It is often innovative and immediately applicable but less reliable and susceptible to bias Biggest difference is the central and active role of the researcher in the process of knowing (within the research rather a neutral, outside observer) Pre- eminence of TACIT KNOWLEDGE a process of inference and intuition that integrates clues into meaning Subsidiary awareness of certain clues " We know more than we can tell" " it just seems logical" Use unique experience and knowledge to develop strategies Examples: Case studies (n of 1) Clinical Reports In-depth interviews Introspective reports (what I thought, can I do it again, etc) Participant observation Shared experiences You must actively integrate scientific knowledge with professional experience and temper these with your own insights and intuition. The SCIENCE of coaching focuses on the use of general principles. The ART of coaching is recognizing when, how, and in what situations to individualize these general principles. Sport Psychology is more than the Scientific or Holistic study of human behaviour and performance in sport and exercise. It also involves the practice or application of knowledge (through development of skills, methods, and techniques) to enhance performance, behaviour, personal growth, and enjoyment of sport and physical activity. Motivation ( from the latain - "Movere"= to move) A theoretical construct (not directly observable phenomenon) Is used to account for the : Selection, Intensity, Persistence Of behaviour, learning or performance in any activity. Definition: The direction (approach/avoid) and intensity (high/low) of one's Effort) - participant oriented - situation oriented - interaction of both Sport P Lec 3c September-17-10 6:11 PM Some motivated factors can be easily changed while others are more difficult to influence Guidelines: 1.Both the situation and the personal traits motivate participants 2.It is important for a leader to understand what motivates a participant -make it enjoyable to get results, coach needs to understand why the people are there (perhaps social atmosphere that goes with the situations) -by understanding why people are motivated it becomes an important aspect in putting them in situations -multiple motives -competing motives -shared and/or unique motives (people on the same team doing the same thing share a lot of The same motives – winning) -motives change over time (individual may start from a social perspective to wanting to show How good they are) 3.structure or change the environment to enhance motivation -put them in situations where they are able to satisfy these motives -appealing to a particular individuals motivational preferences 4.Critical role of the leader in influences the motivation of the participants (coaching style) -coaches have a big influence with people who are just starting out (beginning athletes) -how you motivate, how you coach is going to affect people 5.Undesirable motives can be changed through behavior modification techniques Token Rewards as Motivators – ch 6 Rewards: “things” used to modify or manipulate behavior – material reward Reinforcement: personal interactions – verbal and non-verbal (more info later) Token rewards: also known as -Behvaioural modification -Operant conditioning -token economies -**Contingency Management** Contingency relationship between a behavior and its consequence -contingency management: the regulation of behavior by use of tokens to influence or alter outcomes Examples of token rewards: -trophies -freedom -stars/decals -food -love -free time (won’t have to run suicides) -recognitions -special privileges -MONEY Undesirable behaviours can be eliminated through use of token rewards Ex. Text pg 137 – change behavior's of a swim team -attendance board (public)-everyone can see -group competition (intensity) Desirable behaviours can be enhanced through use of token rewards Ex.Text pg 137- improve supportive and positive communication and increase proficiency of a basketball team shooting -point system for incidents and success in practice -daily public posting of points earned Token rewards have a spillover effect on non-target behaviours Ex.Jones – 1997 improve skills at summer basketball camp -earned coloured rings for skill execution that can be exchanged for variety of rewards at tuck Shop Other observed spillover effects from the research -satisfaction and enjoyment -attendance and promptness -Interest and attitudes -conformance to rules -social interaction (coach/athletes) -statements of approval – less “bitching” Token rewards can be used to improve individual skills and/or task performance – not just to change behaviours Guidelines 1.Target only a couple behaviours/skills/tasks and define/explain them in readily observable terms 2.State the contingencies/outcomes clearly -“if you don’t eat your broccoli, you don’t get ice cream 3.Monitor the target behaviours consistently (use assistants to record) -don’t do it one day, and not the next 4.Provide meaningful public feedback that focuses on self-improvement not social comparison (it will occur naturally) -don’t start comparing one person to another 5.Use a very simple reward system and be consistent in the application of the rewards 6.Think and start small and then expand -only target a few things then when you become successful, expand 7.Consider individual differences when applying a program of behavior modification -some people may be raised in a swearing environment (swearing ex) Gradually work to eliminate the token system as the desirable behaviours are entrenched Sport P Lec 4 September-20-10 6:11 PM Reinforcement Definition: Any personal interaction (evaluative comments of reactions) that will increase the occurrence or strength of a behavior 1. Positive reinforcement: introduction of something positive that increases or maintains a response 2. Negative reinforcement: removal of something noxious that increases or maintains a response (ex: we be in good shape, so we do suicides at the end of practice, we refer to it as negative,) -Punishment: any interaction that decreases the strength of a behavior -Maximizing the use of punishment- if used (running a lap, being late don’t get to start, etc -Consistency- punish everyone the same for the same misdemeanor -Punish the behavior not the person -allow input into what is the punishment -don't use physical activity as punishment -impose punishment impersonally(don’t make it personal) -make sure the punishment isn't perceived as reward or attention - don't punish errors during play -don't embarrass players in front of teammates - use punishment sparingly but enforce it when you use it Too often we teach to avoid punishment but don’t teach correct alternative behaviors Social Reinforcement: Non-tangible, positive or negative, evaluative comments and reactions made by others Can be presented through eiher: a) verbal praise or criticism/ sarcasm b) non verbal expressions or gestures (positive or critical) note: b often overrides a (gestures vs. verbal) There are a number of factors which influence the degree to which social rein forcers have an impact on learning and performance-they always enhance it! Social reinforcement works best when: a) it is used on younger participants b) it is used infrequently c) it is used to convey information about competence d) it is administered by significant people of the opposite sex e) it is given by unknown or disliked others f) the task being reinforced is simple, well learned, or boring Implications 1. children receiving continuous + ve social reinforcement gain better self esteem and more positive perceptions of their coach and team 2. A judicious use of +ve social reinforcement is important in the development and maintenance of +ve coach/athlete interpersonal relations- which has a decided impact on learning( especially physical skills) 3. It must be decided whether to use social reinforcements to improve performance ( use of sparingly) or to enhance the social environment ( use liberally) or something in between 4. Any use of positive social reinforcement should a) be meaningful or important to the participant (not given indiscriminately) b) be contingent on some performance criteria not just on outcome Sport P Lec 5 C September-22-10 6:12 PM c) be administered immediately and consistently among all participants d) be given for demonstrating good effort toward the target behavior or performance of a skill e) allow for mistakes in overall performances f) reward appropriate social and emotional responses g) be used to maintain skills already developed by countiunuing to reinforce correct performance- don't just focus on incorrect performance or negative behavior Distribution of reinforcement and punishment for effective coaching and teaching 50 % Positive Reinforce Good behavior as often as possible - - - - - - - ----------------------------------------------------------5%------ - - - - - - - - - Punishment of intolerable behavior along with suggestions For Alternative Behavior( Time out, Procedure, to reducde attention to any possible reinforcement of intolerable behavior) 45% Ignore ( Bad behavior while suggesting correct behavior) Procedures for developing and maintaining specific performance of Behaviours 1.Shaping a. Determine present ability level b. Identify steps or stages of the skill to be learned c. Identify appropriate reinforces d. Clarify the terminal level of skill, performance, or behaviour e. Start with the most important stages that can be accomplished successfully and provide appropriate +ve reinforcGement f. Selectively reinforce behaviour or skill execution that is increasingly similar to the terminal skill/behaviour g. Then begin to fill in the missing parts of the identified skill- not a sequential process ( ex: riding a bike) 2.Chaining ( difference Is how we approach is, process is the same) Successive reinforcement of the component part or segments of a skill or behaviour How to chain behaviour or skills • Break skill down into linked segments • Teach and reinforce each segment in turn • Work on one segment until it is or near the terminal level of execution • Can work from the beginning or the end of the skill This is also known as the WHOLE-ART-WHOLE method ..Ex: A basketball Lay up 3.Reinforcement Schedules The Frequency of reinforcement schedules a. Constant Schedule Reinforce every occurrence of the desired behaviour/skill Used in new or initial training b. Intermittent Schedules 1. Ratio Given after a set of number of correct responses (e.g.- every third repetition) 2. Interval given after a specific amount of time has elapsed (e.g- every 2 mins) 3. Duration given during a set period of time ( only given during certain drills of portions of practice) Intrinsic Interest as a motivator Definitions 1. Intrinsic Motivation -desire to participate in an activity or task for its own sake- enjoyment, excitement, challenge -innate need to feel competent and self determining when dealing with one's environment (determining what u choose to do and showing how good u r at it) - Characterized by an ongoing process of seeking and attempting to conquer challenges that are optimal for ones ability How To measure Intrinsic Motivation a. Free choice involvement in an activity- time spent b. Presence of performance quality- complexity, creativitiy, flexibility, spontaneity c. Self- Report questionaires- interest, enjoyment, satisfaction Sport P Lec 6 C September-24-10 6:13 PM 2. Extrinsic Motivation -behaviour engaged in for reasons other than the activity itself -external rewards -activity becomes a means to an end- a way to an external reward of comply with the demands of others -produces a feelings of external control resulting in compliance or defiance and is manifesting by feelings of pressure, tension or apprehension ** Intrinsic and Extrinsic motives are interactive but not additive-(see pg.139) (can compete or co-operate with one another) How external rewards influence intrinsic interest have been analyzed in two ways 1. Empirical approach- research based ( Reward example, kids drawing for candy bars, 3 groups, one expecting, one surprised, one no reward) b) cognitive evaluation theory Evaluates how an individual perceives the impact of external rewards and thus the effect this perception has on his/her intrinsic motivation (enhance it or undermine it) Thus a reward can be perceived to have controlling or an informational function i) Control- locus of causality(what causes a persons behavior) (self-determination) If external it undermines Int. Mot. If internal it enhances Int. Mot. ii) Information- about ones competence Greater perceived competence enchances Int. Mot. Diminished perceived competence decreases Int. Mot Salience: the important attributed to a reward will determine how it is perceived by the recipient. Cognitive evaluation theory(in notebook) Other empirical propositions c) The gender of the reward recipient influences the interpretation of the reward- this is gradually changing in todays society - football decreases int. mot. (feelings of control) - wrestlers & female athletes- increases int.mot. As it provides information on competence since scholarships not given to them as often d) The age of the reward recipient influences the interpretation of the reward - as kids grow older the tend to view rewards more as a bribe (control) e) Extrinsic rewards are associated with work (payment, promotion, success/) status) Intrinsic rewards are associated with play (mastery, skill acquisition, challenge, excitement) In sport & exercise, concentrate on providing intrinsic rewards- avoid feelings of work (stay in a cycle of play and enjoyment) f) competition and a focus on winning can act as an extrinsic informational reward- particularly for males - competitive success tends to increase int. mot. While failure tends to decrease it - emphasize information on performance competence (mastery) when relating competition results or else loosing= incompetence= decreased int. mot 2. Anecdotal Reports (csikszentmihalyi, 1990) Asked if there are common pleasurable experiences in a variety of physical activities? (fun, enjoyment) Asked if there are common elements which produce these experiences? Asked do they occur in other activities? Interviewed rock climbers, chess players, dancers, musicians, ball players Identified the term FLOW EXPERIENCE Sport P Lec 7 September-27-10 6:13 PM -an autotelic feeling where the participant feels totally involved in the activity ( Do the activity for the sheer joy of the doing) Flow is attained when the participants perceived skills are equal to the demands or challenges of the task and the following conditions are present 1. Complete absorption in the activity- so involved nothing else matters 2. Merging of action and awareness-totally involved in the task (don’t have to think about it, it just happens) 3. Have a sense of control over ones actions and environment 4. Attention is centered and focused on only a few important details 5. There is a loss of ego( self-consciousness) where the is no concern about adequacy or embarrassment 6. The demands/goals of the task are clear and the feedback is accurate and specific to the task 7. Time is transformed-seems to speed up(time flies by) 8. Effortless movement- don't have to think about it or try too hard (automatic pilot) Flow is usually attained when both capabilities and challenge are HIGH How to Achieve flow - Motivation to perform (challenge) - optimal levels of arousal (vary by individual) - maintain narrow focus on key elements-stay in present -Pre-competitive and competitive plans and preparation - Physical preparation and readiness -Confidence and positive mental attitude -Trust and shared sense of purpose with teammates (cohesion) -feeling good about performance- in sync Implications 1. Extrinsic rewards do not necessarily undermine or enhance intrinsic interest in an activity 2. It is the individuals interpretation of the reward (SALIENCE) that is critical 3. It is not a question of whether or not to use an extrinsic reward- rather it is how such a reward should be used 4. It is controlling and informational aspect of the reward that must be considered Therefore: as a leader we should -prove an optimally challenging environment -provide rewards for competence - use small rewards that are not too controlling -provide opportunity for self-determination(input and resulting responsibility) in evaluating and administering rewards - be interpersonally supportive Make people "orgins" not "pawns' See p.152-factors that disrupt and prevent flow Process: Communication Encoding-> sender-> channel-> receiver-> decoding ^ v Decision Response Purpose: (in sport & ex) Persuade Evaluate Inform/Instruct Types of Communication: Interpersonal-between two or more people Intrapersonal- self talk/thought Sport P Lec 8 September-29-10 6:38 PM September 29, 2010 Non-verbal: Important part of interpersonal communication and comprises 50% of all communication Interpersonal Sometimes the message may not be received by the person(s) intended, or can get distorted and therefore not transmitted. Therefore it is important to know how to effectively send a message. Guidelines for Sending Effective Messages 1. Be direct 2. Own your message (I, my) 3. Be complete and specific 4. Avoid double messages 5. State your feelings clearly 6. Separate fact from opinion 7. Focus on one thing at a time 8. Deliver messages immediately 9. No hidden agendas 10. Be supportive 11. Be consistent with non-verbal messages 12. Reinforce using repetition 13. Tailor message to the experience of the receiver 14. Was your message accurately interpreted? Look for feedback…. *See Martens 1987- pg 237 in text for a listening skills test Non-Verbal Communication -50% - 70% of all communication -tend to believe more than verbal -physical appearance – first impression -“body language” – posture, gestures, body position (space) -touching (various forms) -facial expressions -voice characteristics (pitch, temp, volume, rhythm and articulation) Receiving Messages a. ACTIVE LISTENING • A process focusing on content, intent and feelings • Attend to ideas • Acknowledge comment • Give responding feedback • Non-verbal (head nod, eye contact, etc.) • Paraphrasing Example of paraphrasing: -What I hear you saying is… -Let me see if I got this right, you said… -What you are telling me is… -> important that you listen, not just hear -> plan or prepare to listen and attend Receiving Messages b. SUPPORTIVE LISTENING BEHAVIOUR -supportive “with” the sender: value the message -attending (nod, direct eye contact) -confirming: understanding the message, don’t interrupt • can be non-verbal -stand close and face the sender -direct eye contact -facial gestures -open posture Can be verbal • -actively communicate understanding and acknowledge • AWARE LISTENING
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