Introduction to Family Studies Term #1 2013.docx

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Kinesiology 1088A/B
Bob Larose

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1 Introduction to Family Studies Lesson #1 Monday, September 9th,2013 Class #1 What is A Family? LEGAL: • Government regulations determine 'family' for services such as immigration and medical benefits. -Common-law spouses, single parents, and same-sex couples all considered families under various laws and legal definitions. Census Family: refers to a married couple (with or without children of either or north spouses) a couple living common law (with or without children of either or both parents) or a lone parent of any marital status, with at least one child living in the same dwelling. -A couple living common-law may be of opposite or same sex. SOCIAL: Two Basic Family Components: 1. The Nuclear family, often called the "Standard North American Family"(SNAF) is defined as married parents with child(ren). 2. The Extended family consists of nuclear family and other relative. PERSONAL: • In some cases, close friends are considered family members. • In cases of conflict (e.g. divorce) a family member might not be considered as belonging, even though he/she maybe be a 'blood' family member Canadian Families and Households: (2006 Statistics) -Census enumerated 8,896,800 census families in Canada in 2006, a 6.3% increase from 2001 -Common-Law Families grew the most since 2001 to 2006 Family Structure: -Married-couple families with children aged 24 and under is largest family structure, but declining. -Trend continues into 2011, but now even more married couples do not have children under 24. Couples in Census Families: • First time same-sex married couples were counted. • Reflecting legalizations of same-sex marriages for all of Canada as of July 2005. • The number of same sex couples surged 32.6%. • 5x opposite-sex couples (+5.9%). • Household size continue to decline. • First time there were more unmarried people (over 15 years) than legally married people. • More woman in their forties have children >4 than before. • Living as part of a common-law couple growing rapidly, especially for older age groups. • Fewer young adults (20-29 years) were in couples, despite an increase in the percentage of common-law partners in this age group over the past 20 year. 2 What Might Be Influencing These Trends? • -Money: preparing to have more children • -Depending on how old the parents are, depending if they are willing to have more kids (healthy) • -School: spending a while in school, causing health risks for the baby if decide too late • -Less need for bigger families (not 5 children, more 1 to 2) • -More woman working than taking care of the house, hiring Nannies Day 1 Complete Introduction to Family Studies Lesson #2 Monday, September 16 , 2013 th Class #2 Last Class Summary: - The concept of family usually includes biological and legal ties as well as emotional attachment (Holtzman, 2005) Trends: - Most Canadians live in families - Largest family structure: Married-couple families with children under 24 - Household size continue to decline - Sam sex marries couples were counted o Same-sex couples increased 5x as much as opposite sex couples Private Household: refers to a person or group of persons who occupy the same dwelling and do not have a residence elsewhere in Canada or abroad. -Two types of households: whether the household is occupying a collective dwelling or a private dwelling (private household) Fertility: 1. The condition, quality, or degree of being fertile 2. The birthrate of a population Theories in Family Studies: Lesson #2 -What are Theories? Paradigm: your point of view, how you behave  outer circle Theory: middle circle Concepts: inner Philosophies of Science: - Paradigms (Kuhn, 1962) or worldview - Describe the set of experiences, beliefs, valued that affect the way an individual perceives reality and responds to that perception - “A general organizing framework for theory and research that includes bask assumptions, models of quality research, and methods for seeking answers.” (Neuman, 2006, p.81) 3 Ways of Knowing: (all have a meaning which develops our culture) 1. Objectivism 2. Constructionism 3. Subjectivism 3 Common Paradigms in Social Sciences: -Positivist (post positivist) -Interpretive -Critical Positivist: Most Dominant: more people are - Adopted from the natural sciences - Emphasizes discovering casual laws, careful empirical observations, and value-free research - Organized methods for combining deductive logic with precise empirical observations in order to discover and confirm a set of casual laws that can be used to predict general patterns of human activity - Objectivity  Truth - Dominant Perspective Interpretive: - Emphasizes meaningful social action, socially constructed meaning, and value relativism - Systematic analysis of socially meaningful action through direct detailed observation of people in natural settings to arrive at understanding of how people create and maintain their social worlds - Reality is socially constructed - Subjectivity - We relate to world on the basis of our interpretations - Those interpretations are shaped by out context Critical: Ex. Men over women; Women weren’t able to vote Culture - Emphasizes combating surface-level distortions multiple levels of reality, and value-based activism for human empowerment. - Layers of reality - Reality informed by power differentials What Is A Theory? - A theory provides a general framework of ideas that can be used to answer questions about the world. Components: A) Concepts B) Relations between Concepts C) Propositions: explaining how this happens from that D) Relations between propositions E) Connections between propositions and the empirical world of observation data Functions of Theory: - Accumulation & organization: bring the concepts together - Precision: quality - Guide Research - Connections 4 - Interpretations: interpretations based on a theory - Predications: how that will play out over time - Examination: why it happened Criteria For Evaluating Theories: -Theories can be used alone or in combination with other theories -Theories explain by treating particular observations as examples of general principles or processes -Theories are important because they shape government policy, methods of therapy, and other ways society relates to families. Consider: Evaluating or Explaining the Behaviours in a Family: 1. How does the theory account for both change and continuity in family patterns? 2. Does the theory show the way society and the family influence each other? 3. What does the theory say about relationships within the family? 4. How has the theory affected the policies and practices of government, social agencies, and others who deal with families? Theories in Family Studies: - Ecological - Structural-Functionalist - Conflict - Systems - Developmental Ecological Theory:  Originally prosed by Bronfenbrenner (1977)  This theory looks at the relationship of a family and society, and has four levels o Macrosystem: ideology, culture o Exosystem: local government o Mesosystem: specific systems you are apart of o Microsystem: home, church, school, peer group Microsystem: - Consists of small groups in which interact face-to-face - Directly affects the quality of life through relationships with individuals; therefore, its nature and quality are important - Each family member has a different microsystem Mesosystem: - Is made up for the relationships between two or more groups of which the individual is a member - These settings include the neighbourhood, school, community programs, places of worship and the workplace Ex. For a Child: relationship between family and the daycare/school For a Parent: relationship between the family and the workplace. Exosystem: - A setting in which individuals do not take an action part, but which has an effect on them through the mesosystem or microsystem Ex. For a child: Parent’s workplace 5 For a Parent: Partners work; schools -Consider work life balance Macrosystem: - Consists of a society’s ideology and culture - Shared beliefs, values, and behaviours. - Policy decisions Ex. Excological/Transactional Model of Community Violence and Child Maltreatment (Cicchetti & Lynch, 1993)  Influenced by transactional & ecological theories of development  Provides a multi-level analysis of ecologies that influence children’s development (Diagram) Evaluation: - Explains change in families better than in society - Interactions within and between systems - Provides a framework for understanding other theories - Can be deterministic Structural-Functional: - Society is composed of interrelated parts that work together to maintain stability - Views the family as an institution among other social institutions Family has a function- Socialization and Shaping Values are social principles accepted by a society as a whole or by groups within that society Norms are ways of behaving that are typical of a certain group Social Scripts are the cultural rules that outline what, where, when, how, and why we should do something Status is a social position that carries expectations concerning suitable behaviour  Roles Manifest Function = obvious & intended Latent function = unintended Dysfunction = anything that keeps system from operating smoothly Evaluation: - Helps explain relationships between family & other institutions - Contribution of key concepts - Too static and conservative a view of society - Tends to justify the status quo, difficult to explain social change Reflection Questions: - Read the text pages of these concepts Day 2 Complete Notes From Textbook: Family Dynamics Part 1: THE FAMILY: Paradigms Explained Differently Paradigms: set of beliefs and assumptions about how something works 6 Introduction to Family Studies Lesson #3 Monday, September 23 , 2013 rd Class #3 Theories in Family Studies: Continued Conflict Theories: - Focus on power imbalances - Society is characterized by social inequality o Social arrangements benefit some groups at the expense of others - Ideology: system of beliefs that justifies inequality - Class Conflict: struggle over control of the means of production - Alienation: loss of control over one’s social environment Examples:  Marxist: power based on economics – ability to reproduce  Feminist: power based on gender – women take care of the house  Cultural: power based on culture – racism Evaluation: - Focus on change and empowerment - Explain why families and societies change – a result of shifts in the balance of power - Too much emphasis on conflict: looking for conflict everywhere and not understanding/appreciating that people aren’t working together - Lack of Objectivity System Theory: - Contains a set of interrelated and interacting parts - Families are systems interconnected and interdependent individuals, none of who can be understood in isolation from the system - Family Roles: what is expected of each family member o Complementarity of roles: Cant have a sister, without having a sister… Cant have a husband, without getting married and having a husband… - Families also contain subsystems - Systems and subsystems have boundaries - Attempt to maintain equilibrium Evaluation: - Explain impact of the behaviour of one individual on all members of the family - Progression of patterns of behaviours: How to continue the same patterns to maintain equilibrium - Failure to account for individual influences - Failure to account for external change/impact Developmental Theory: - Look at the entire life cycle - Stages in the cycle - Developmental Tasks: at each stage the family changes in predictable ways - Ease of understanding the stages and developmental tasks and the challenges families have to face - To be successful, family members need to adapt to changing needs and demands, and attend to tasks that are necessary to ensure family survival 7 Figure In Textbook: Two Developmental Theories Evaluation: - Ability to view the dynamic nature of the family over long periods of time - Ease of understanding the stages and developmental tasks and the challenges families have to face - Lack of ability to account for different family forms, and gender, ethnic, and cultural differences Theories in Family Studies: Positivist: -Ecological -Structural-Functionalist -Systems -Developmental Interpretive: -Symbolic-interaction theorists Critical: -Conflict-Feminist Research Approaches: Quantitative Research- - Data is the form of numbers which are analyzed using statistical techniques - Surveys - Experiments Qualitative Research- - Date is in the form of language, which are analyzed by looking for patterns &/or themes - Interviews / Focus Groups - Direct Observation - Document Analysis Survey: - Methods of research that involves getting informal many individuals - Converted to numbers for comparison Example: Canadian Census Positive: - Larger number of people - Used to make comparisons Negative: - Limited depth & may be biased Experiment: - A research method involved changing conditions deliberately and observing changed in behavior that results - Change variable & measured variable - Can be done with individuals - Can compare groups: one condition vs. another condition- measuring their different behaviours - Need to attempt to establish control 8 Interview: - Research method in which the researcher asks questions face to face - Often focus on experiences Direct observation: - Research method in which the research watches and records behaviours Other: - Document review - Focus Groups Day 3 Complete Introduction to Family Studies Lesson #4 th Monday, September 30 , 2013 Class #4 Being Different: Gender Sex and Gender Differences:  These differences have 3 sources: 1. Physical and Genetic differences between the sexes 2. Routine ways of behaving we develop over the years 3. Our individual ideas and values Sex & Gender: Sex: refers to the biological differences between males and females  Physical differences: Men= stronger, fight OR flight, Women= live longer, think before we do Gender: socially constructed roles, behaviours, activities, and attributes for men and women Gender Roles: socially approved ways of behaving as males and females in our society. Generally, differences between males and females are small; Greater variety within the sexes than between them (Rudman & Glick, 2008) Gender Differences and Family Relationships:  Gender socialization  within the family & schools  Boys and girls are raised to relate to one another in different ways Men:  Society can respond negatively when these roles are challenges  Women and men communicate differently -Action  Differences in appropriate roles regarding relationships -Reason -Power o Double stranded in sexuality -Competition  In Canada we favour equality, but boys and girls are still expected to behave in different ways  Gender differences affect both the nature of relationships and all aspects of family life Women:  In tradition roles: -Discussion & o Men are regarded as practical, active, and rational o Women are regarded as moral, spiritual, and emotional connection -Emotions  Roles in family: -Similarities o Men is more often the principal -Focus on non-verbal 9 o Women are more often responsible for child-rearing Feminist:  Women and girls experience more physical and sexual abuse than do men (Statistics Canada, 2006b; Taylor-Butts, 2009)  Gender inequality in families, with the bulk of power held by men (White & Klein, 2008) Changing Family Forms:  The “traditional” idea of family model is breadwinner father, h
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