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Department
Kinesiology
Course
Kinesiology 1088A/B
Professor
Prof
Semester
Fall

Description
Psychological Skill Training (PST) – chapter 11 Definition: the systematic and consistent practice of mental or psychological skills Psychological skills can be learned but must be practiced and integrated into your training routine - Psychological factors account for most day-to-day fluctuations in performance Myths - Psychological skills are “innate” (they can’t be learned) - Only for “problem” athletes - Only effective for “elite” athletes - Provide “quick fix” solutions - Not useful – “hocus pocus” Components of any systematic training process 1) Education – learn the nature and basis of the skill and understand how it influences performance 2) Acquisition – structured training program to develop skills and techniques 3) Practice – integrate skill development into practice and competitive situations Helps make the sporting experience fun and helps met everybody’s needs PST Program Who? - Sport psychology consultant - Coach – there everyday When? - Pre-season or off-season - 3 to 6 months duration - Ongoing process integrated into practice Needs Assessment - Evaluate strengths and weaknesses - Oral interview and psych inventories - Performance profiling - Examples – pg. 253-255 What? - Which skills to include - Scheduling - Evaluation and follow-up Problems - Lack of conviction - Lack of time - Lack of knowledge - Lack of follow-up PST a) Psychological SKILLS (initial focus) a. Personal qualities to be attained or developed (target behaviours) Performance skills - Optimal arousal – mental - Attention control Foundation Skills - Self-confidence - Volition (motivation) - Self-esteem/self-awareness - Pride=skill, process=method Facilitative Skills - Interpersonal relations - Lifestyle management Psychological METHODS (secondary focus) - Procedures or techniques used to develop psychological skills - Vehicles used to attain skills o Goal setting, imagery, relaxation, thought control, attributions Goal Setting – chapter 15 - Goal = target standard or objective - Goal setting : a process of establishing a target or objective in specific behavioural terms - Three main types of goals: o Outcome goals – win/lose o Performance goals – how well play/personal best (preferred due to greater personal control) o Process goals – actions to execute in order to perform better - What does goal setting do? o Direct effect:  Directs attention and action  Mobilizes energy (effort/vigour)  Prolongs effort (persistence)  Encourages the development of strategy to attain goals (action plan) Indirect effect: influences performance by working on psychological states (anxiety, confidence, satisfaction, attention, ect.) Benefits of goal setting: - Increases productivity and improves quality of work - Clarifies expectations - Relieves boredom - Provides personal recognition - Increases personal and task enjoyment Goals can be set for: a) Training session (log book) b) Practice session (areas to work on) c) Competitive events d) Team social events For each of these sessions or events, goals can be focused on: - Conditioning - Knowledge/strategy - Performance skills - Attitudes and behaviours Goal setting is an extremely powerful technique for enhancing performance, but it must be implemented correctly -goal setting has the strongest effect on performance and satisfaction of any motivational technique (Locke & landers, 81 &95) Warning – don’t overload athletes with too many goals at one time – concentrate on a few of the most important ones Principles of Goal Setting The most effective goals are the ones that are: 1. Relatively difficult, challenging, but attainable (realistic to achieve) 2. Specific (action-oriented) and measurable (quantifiable) 3. Within or geared to the ability potential of the participants Note: the coach may need to provide a lot of input when inexperienced participants set goals as they may not know the task demands or be able to assess their own skill level or potential 4. Public and formally committed to by the participant – written or verbal contract (in a positive format) 5. Flexible and adjustable (up or down) at all times 6. Have specific time frames and dates 7. Sequential and priorized but limited in number 8. Long term goals progressively linked by intermediate and short term goals ( 8 to 10 week program most effective) 9. Accompanied by feedback (KR – knowledge of results) and possibly use with rewards 10. Supported by the coach who is a partner and facilitator in the goal setting process (commitment and ownership) Educated significant others about feedback (win?) 11. Evaluate and reinforce goal attainment on effort before performance outcome 12. Do not tie the goals of one’s self-worth (take personal risk/embarrassment out of goal attainment) 13. Develop goal achievement strategies (action plans) that are unique to each individual or group Success in goal setting seems to be independent of: - Age - Gender - Educational level - Personality disposition Follow up to goal setting 1. Identify appropriate evaluation procedures and evaluate on a regular/frequent basis (manager charts stats. During practice and games) 2. Encourage progress towards started goals not just goal attainment 3. Regularly revaluate and adjust goals and strategies to achieve them to make them more realistic (especially short term goals) Group Goal Setting - Attainment of specific standards of group (not individual) proficiency within a specified time or event - Practice – usually process oriented focusing on effort - Game –more focused on outcome sand implementation of specific skills and strategies As a leader: a) Involve all participants in the formulation of group goals (commitment) b) Strive for consensus – work for compromise – facilitate don’t distract c) Decide on strategies to achieve goals including levels of effort, commitment, behaviour and consequences d) Publicly post goals and update/evaluate process regularly (each week or after each practice) SMARTS goals S –specific M – measurable/quantifiable A – action oriented R – realistic/achievable T – timely (reasonable time) S – self-determined (input) Presence of Others as a Motivator Others – spectators or audience (observers) - Cofactors (others doing the same task – rivals) a) Social Facilitation Theory (Zajonc, 1965) a. The mere presence of others serves to increase arousal levels and cause a response to occur faster or more intensely i. Increased arousal will increase the like likelihood that an individual’s DOMINANT response will occur ii. In simple, well learned skills, correct responses and improved performance occurs in the presence of others iii. In complex or newly learned skills, the dominant response may be incorrect (old or bad habits) and performance will be impaired by the presence of others b) Evaluation Apprehension (Cottrell, 1972) a. It is not just the presence of others that cause arousal. Rather it is the expectation that those present will judge or evaluate the quality of the performance that increases arousal and influences performance effectiveness i. We learn to associate others with praise/blame/reward/punish types of evaluations ii. An audience can thus have an arousing or calming effect and produce resultant variations in performance or behaviour (Drive Theory) c) Cognitive Approach a. Incorporates both of the about theories, but takes it a step further i. The performer is not simply a reactor who responds to an audience or to coactors ii. The performer is a proactive participant who: 1. Interprets the social situation (through perceptions and expectations) 2. Predicts the possible audience reactors 3. Alter behaviour to appeal to this reaction iii. Previous experience, age, gender and personality will all influence the individual’s subjective interpretation of the social situation iv. The size of the audience is not as important as how the individual interprets the size within the situation (numbers according to setting – hostile vs. supportive) v. Expertise – interpret whether the crowd can accurately assess the quality of the performance vi. Supportiveness – quality of social support from those present Home Field a) Advantage (Varca, 1980) a. Functional aggression (home) = more rebounds, blocks, steals b. Dysfunctional aggression (away) = more fouls, turnovers b) Disadvantage (Beaumeister, 1984) a. Increased self-consciousness distracts from the automatic execution of skills (playoffs) Implications There is very little that can be done to eliminate the stressful effects of the presence of others at sporting or exercise events. BUT: 1) Eliminate evaluative apprehension and control arousal, especially when learning new skills 2) Knowledge is power – educate and inform participants about: a. Inform the athletes about the common physiological reactions to stress so they can recognize them when they occur b. Inform them about how audiences can influence performance c. Inform them about the effects that stress and anxiety can have on performance 3) Perfect Practice [makes perfect] a. Overlearn skills, techniques, strategy b. Train by simulating audience effects (taped or real crowds at practice) c. Pair high and low anxious athletes (veteran and rookie – buddies) 4) Specificity a. Arrange practice sessions (both skill and stress reaction situations) so they will approximate game conditions (last seconds or minutes; special teams) Arousal, Stress and Anxiety Arousal – a bland of physiological and psychological activation, the intensity of motivation at any particular time, activation or excitation ranging on a continuum from sleep to hyper-intensity, caused by anticipation – of an event, a threat, or worry Stress – Selye (1956) – “fight or flight” – the result of a substantial imbalance between the physical and psychological demands of a task and one’s response capabilities under conditions where failure has important consequences 4 stages: - Environmental demand - Perception of demand (threat) - Stress response (anxiety) - Behavioural consequences (outcome/performance)  Cyclical process Anxiety – a negative emotional state characterized by nervousness, worry and apprehension, has a cognitive (mental) component (worry, apprehension) and a somatic (physiological) components (increased heart rate, sweating, nausea, “butterflies”) Arousal Theories 1. Drive Theory (spense, 1966) a. Performance = f(habit/drive) b. Linear relationship between arousal and performance (as arousal increases so does performance) c. Impact dependent on how well the task is learned (social facilitation theory)  No longer much support for this theory Note: arousal/anxiety/stress are not always a bad thing SCAT - Assess the degree of the personality trait of anxiety - Assess the degree of stress before, during and after an event (state anxiety) - Asses the overall effect of anxiety during a competition Findings: - No difference in trait or state anxiety levels between: o Participants and non-participants o Most skilled vs. least skilled competitors - State anxiety gradually decreases with age and experience - High trait anxious individuals experience higher feelings of state anxiety prior to, during and after competitions - Trait anxiety levels have no influence Sources of Stress - Individualized 1) Situational a. Importance of the event or segments of it b. Uncertainty of outcome or life events 2) Personal a. Trait anxiety b. Self-esteem c. Social physique evaluation anxiety Other factors influencing one’s perceptions of stress in a competitive situation 1) Individual or team sport 2) Expectations for success 3) Winning vs. losing or trying to do one’s best (outcome vs. performance - refer to goal setting) 4) Attributions to outcome – learned helplessness Fear of Success (Horner, 1985) - Withhold effort or involvement so don’t have to live up to levels attained in previous best performance Effects of Anxiety 1) Somatic – interferes with muscle co-ordination, simultaneous contraction or tension in antagonistic muscle groups 2) Psychological – distraction of attention, think about physical problems and not focus on task at hand, narrowing of the visual field and elimination or relevant cues Anxiety results in a Negative Cycle or Spiral (more anxious, more detriment to performance; poorer performance, more anxiety) - Must break the cycle and control arousal (stress and anxiety) - Be in control but relaxed Players and coaches must learn various techniques to help them cope with the anxiety that arises from competition Coping = a dynamic process of constantly changing cognitive and behavioural efforts to manage specific internal or external demands that are viewed as exceeding one’s resources (Lazarus & Folkman, 1984) Can be: - Problem focused – manage problem - Emotion focused – regulating emotional responses Techniques use to cope with state anxiety (Ch. 12) 1) Self-awareness – monitoring own tension levels – recognize and accept (can be facilitative or debilitative) 2) Dissociation – change the focus of attention from the stressor to a more neutral situation A) B) Prevention of chronic problems: a. Cant sleep b. Restless and fidgety c. Pre-game nausea 1) Physiological (somatic) techniques a. Used to reduce physical tension levels b. Progressive Relaxation (Jacobsen, 1983) i. Contraction and relaxation of major muscle groups in sequential order (often use audio tape instruction – see text – pg. 278) c. Biofeedback i. Use of instrumentation to provide signals that indicate current and subsequent levels of physiological tension ii. HEART RATE, BLOOD PRESSURE, GALVANIC SKIN RESPONSE, ECT. iii. Breath Control – more later 2) Cognitive techniques a. Used to reduce worry and negative thoughts b. Meditation (relaxation response) i. Quiet the mind ii. Passive process – don’t force it iii. Use neutral key words or sounds (mantra) iv. Count exhalations – if lose count simply start over Autogenic Training  Exercises designed to produce feelings of warmth & heaviness Hypnosis  Gradual progression into a trance like state during which goal directed suggestions are given by leader Matching Hypothesis  Match anxiety type with style of intervention (cognitive & somatic) - match source with treatment Multimodal Reduction and Packages SMT - Stress Management Training  An integrated cognitive & somatic intervention strategy  Accounts for situation, appraisal of situation, physiological response and actual behaviour SIT - Stress inoculation training ( used with people who have phobia's, ex: snakes)  Gradual exposure to & coping with increasingly stressful situations B. Dealing with ACUTE (more immediate problems)  Immediately prior to or during a contest  Help participant focus on the task at hand  Negative thought stopping (positive thinking) Self-Talk - Stop thinking negatively  Substitute positive thoughts immediately  Use CUE words, images, music etc. Self-talk - a relatively new area of research Definition: an internal dialogue through which a person interprets feelings & perceptions, regulate s (changes) evaluations & conviction's, and gives-self instructions & reinforcement 6 Dimensions of Self-Talk  Self-determined or assigned  Perspective - internal (voice in head) vs. external (out loud)  Valence - positive or negative  Direction - perception of motivating or demotivating (if we stay on neg side)  Intensity -impact on motivation  Frequency - how often is it used Performance can be influence positively or negatively by some or all of the dimensions of self- talk Refocus - "parking"  Recognize negative thought or problem but set it aside during competition  Realize can't deal with it how not but will come back to it later at a more appropriate time  Physically "park" the thought (touch) and then come back and retouch to reacquire when ready to deal with it - Breath Control Breathing is usually automatic and spontaneous (autonomic) BUT you can take over control of your breathing pattern and direct your breathing response When anxiety or fright triggers a biological alarm response, the normal pattern of breathing changes - sharp inhale and hold breath rather than rhythmical exhale 2. Breath Control Breathing is usually automatic and spontaneous (autonomic) but you can take control of your breathing pattern and direct your breathing response When anxiety or fright triggers a biological alarm response, the normal pattern of breathing changes – sharp inhale and hold breath rather than rhythmical exhale You must first recognize that your breathing response has changed and then do something about it (self- monitoring) Breathing Control Strategy 1. Inhale – slowly count to 4, fill lower abdomen (not chest) using diaphragm 2. Pause momentarily with full breath 3. Exhale slowly – count to 8, long/loud sigh 4. Do 3 or 4 slow breaths in a row while sensing a relaxed feeling wash over your body as tension dissipates 3. Other Immediate Coping Techniques  Attention Control Training  Centering  Mental Rehearsal (Imagery) 4. On-site relaxation a. Self-monitoring of somatic tension levels b. SMILE – takes the edge off tension (relax jaw, neck, hands) c. Have FUN – enjoy the experience, look forward to the activity d. Practice stressful situations (simulate pressure) e. Take your time – slow down the pace, maintain regular routines f. Stay focused on/in the present – leave last play behind, forget about “what happens if?” g. Have a game plan – easier decision making, scouting & spotting opponents 5. Arousal Induction  Consciously increase breathing rate  Act energized  Positive self-talk  Energizing music  Arousing imagery  Warm up/workout Incentive Motivation Definition: the value attached to the possible outcomes (goals) available to participants in sport and physical activity - Anticipate satisfaction and enjoyment from participation - Expectancies confirmed (or not) through actual experience which influences continued participation (motivation) - Researches topic in two ways o Identify main incentives that influence choice, persistence, and effort of participation o Identify the reasons why participants drop out of an activity - General findings o Each individual had his/her own unique reasons for participation o There are usually multiple motives operating at various strengths at any one time o The most dominant motives that have been identified are:  Affiliation (make or be with friends)  Excellence (skill development to the highest level)  Excitement/stress (thrill seeking)  Success (winning) and status (recognition)  Fitness and energy release Weaker but still present as distinct motives are: - Independence (able to do on own) - Power (control over others) - Aggression (intimidation) - Influence of others (parents, peers, friends) There are no differences observed in incentive motivation when analyzed for: - Age - Gender - Type of sport NOTE: Having fun is often cited as a motive but, it is suggested that the “FUN” is really the result of other incentive motive fulfillment The reason for discontinuing in an activity are also multiple and complex - i.e. failure to achieve satisfaction of one or more primary incentives is weighted against those that have been attained Other sports or activities start to have a greater interest than the one that you are currently involved in (conflict of interest) so you drop out (sport-specific vs. sport-general dropout) The negative reasons for dropping out of an activity are: - Lack of ability (failure to improve skills) - Lack of success - Lack of playing time - Lack of enjoyment - Injury - Boredom - Lack of support from significant others - Dislike of the coach or his/her style (win at all cost attitude) - Pressure from parents Negative reasons have more impact and are more important for younger or less experienced participants Implications The coach or leader must deliberately increase the opportunities for at least the major incentives to be satisfied. To do so, he/she needs to engage in a process to attempt to discover what incentives each participant brings to the activity (IMI – incentive motivation index) a) Affiliation – place value on all roles, allow or plan social activities beyond he sport setting, encourage mutual support and team unity (cohesion) b) Excellence – help set realistic personal and group goals relative to ability level, provide for as much skill development as possible (over learning by doing repeatedly in practice) c) Stress/excitement – provide variation and novelty in practice, give participants many challenging opportunities and expectations d) Status/success – don’t over emphasize winning, but don’t ignore it’s importance, promote all roles, effort and performance e) Fitness – provide all participants with the opportunity to be active and involved, conditioning is a valuable part of every activity but don’t use as punishment Competition as a Motivator – Ch. 5 Competition is a strong motivational force embedded in all sporting situations and in many recreational settings as well. However, the coach or leader has very little control over it. Descriptors: a situational process that is either zero sum or non-zero sum and is either direct or indirect Cooperation Working together with others to accomplish a task or reach a common goal Competition and cooperation’s can be at work at the same time on any team or groups (cooperate with teammates vs. opponents but compete with them for starting roles) The Competitive Process (martens, 1975) - Each individual experiences the competition process differently and it may vary from one situation to another with the same person - The competitive process is primarily focused on social evaluation (comparison with others or standards) - Linked stages often influences by external feedback and rewards 1) Objective competitive situation a. Comparison criteria is known by others who can evaluate performance 2) Subjective competitive situation a. How the person perceives the objective situation b. 3 orientations: i. Competitiveness ii. Win oriented iii. Goal oriented  SOQ (Gill, 1988) 3) Response a. Approach/avoid b. Behavioural – type of opponent c. Physiological – arousal d. Psychological – internal and external factors 4) Consequences a. Positive or negative b. Perception or consequences c. Effects of subsequent events d. *inner factors from diagram* 1) Attitudes – competitiveness is a learned behaviour and is influenced by the social environment and varies in intensity by: a. Culture b. Personality c. Age 2) Personality dispositions – need for achievement; seek out challenges where success is in doubt , fear of failure – avoidance of competitive situations 3) Ability – the relationship between ability and the challenges of the task influence the competitive drive; competitiveness is strongest when participants are relatively equal in ability a. If unequal in ability the activity becomes co=operative learning until more equal in ability b. Competitiveness is strongest if participants have high ability c. If low in ability and made to compete, effort, performance and interest are reduced 4) Motives – early success increases competitive drive while early failure decreases it and either circumstance can influence the participant’s motives for future competition a. Suggest more cooperative style games (rec. leagues) at younger age b. Wait till early teens for highly competitive games and teams c. Insure some initial success if possible (scheduling, controlled, scrimmages, exhibition games) Competitiveness (Orlick, 1978 & Coakley, 1994) - Reduce competitiveness and experiences of failure in sport for younger children - Develop positive behaviours and attitudes about sport and reduce or eliminate hostility and conflict = emphasis on cooperative elements of participation - Promote common goals, group productivity and achievement situations - Reduce the stress of competitive involvement especially in younger participants Participants typically experience higher levels of competitive stress: - In individual sports that in team sports - When the importance of the game situation increases - When a contest is lost or tied - When the person has high trait anxiety - Can disrupt sleeping and eating routines Implications: 1) Emphasize cooperative activities at younger ages 2) Relate the outcome of the contest to the goals set prior to the competition 3) Define what winning and losing mean to you and the team - The coach must act as a stabilizing influence when stress results from losing - One of the most important responsibilities for a coach is to put winning into proper perspective and being there to sooth or mediate the emotional side-effects of losing - “success is not forever, fear is not fatal” 4) Competition is not inherently good or bad – neither is cooperation. An overemphasis on either (winning at all costs or never competing) is inappropriate. We need to integrate both aspects into the games we play. Recognize that competitiveness is pervasive in today’s society and will dominate over cooperation - Allow and plan for it – don’t attempt to eliminate it completely = frustration when won’t go away Self-Confidence as a Motivator It is possible to have either too much or too little confidence Definitions: Self-confidence – a general feeling of mastery (personal trait), belief you can successfully perform a task Self-efficacy – confidence in a specific situation (not necessarily confident in all situations – state)e/he, the strength of an individual’s conviction that she/he can successfully execute a behaviour, perform a task or
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