1st Sem Kin Notes.pdf

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Western University
Kinesiology 1088A/B
Bob Larose

Note #1 Objectives of Sport/Exercise Psychology • participation in sport effects an individual’s psychological development/health • considers how psychological factors effect an individual’s physical performance in sport ex. pump up/choke Comprehensive Objective • to obtain an understanding (description, explanation, prediction) of the behavior and performance of individuals or groups in sport/exercise BEHAVIOR: a unique way of responding to all stimuli • • PERFORMANCE: goal directed behavior for the purpose of short term execution of a discrete task Orientation to Sport/Exercise Psychology • BEHAVIORAL: behaviour of athletes determined by environment ex. baseball game @ night vs. game @ morning • PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGICAL: study impact of physiological responses to activity or behaviour ex. season game vs. 9th inning playoffs • COGNITIVE BEHAVIOURAL: behaviour determined by one’s interpretation of both environment and cognitions ex. positive/negative thoughts Professional Approaches • clinical counseling: eating disorders (due to stress/anxiety) • crisis intervention: “slumpbusting” ex. closing “expert” pitcher • performance enhancement consultation + program development • • prevention + treatment of injury ex. psychologically injured, hesitating after injury Sport Psychologist vs. Consultant - medical degreees - educational, has docterate - drug abuse/depression/ - not prepared to deal with eating disorders medical issues, passes them up Sport Psychology - What is it? • if we want to understand human behaviour and performance in sport/exercise How do we go form studying them and what factors should be included in the study? How do we learn? VISUAL, AUDITORY, EXPERIMENTAL. ex. MOVIE: “brain getting in the way”, look like a fool, don’t think! • once you know something you start seeing problems (lots of adjustments, usually keep missing) • if you’re willfully stupid, you don’t know any better ex. secret to life is short term stupidity KOLB’S Learning Cycle 1. Concrete Experience (CE): actual feeling of a task ex. listen to lecture, diving off diving board 2. Reflective Observation (RO): watching what happened ex. talk/reflect about prof/lecture 3. Abstract Conceptualization (AC): make sense of it, thinking ex. why did I hit the ball out of the bounds, make notes/study group 4. Active Experimentation (AE): doing tryout elsewhere ex. exams, leads to feedback Note #2 • PERFORMANCE: how well you worked at the gym • BEHAVIOUR: more mental approach, how you think you’ll do Which is more important? Some say it is the interpretation of both. Motivation - What Motivates Someone? Methods/Way of knowing • - scientific method/experiments - systematic observation ex. what pros - single case study - shared public experience ex. ask not only 1 person about a movie, source of motivation when all your friends watch a tv show - introspection (thoughts/feelings) ex. reflection of a date, pos/neg?, no kiss goodnight, how best to preform ourselves - intuition (tacit knowledge) ex. just seems logical, “guys always know where they are, never ask” Ways of Knowing in Sport Psychology • any systematic study of sport psychology should include: 1. Observation + Description (what is it?) - identify/define the essential characteristics ex. when you’re stressed, how do I succeed/learn? 2. Explanation + Analysis (why?) - attempt to provide a reason for the findings in 1. - why things happened the way they did ex. why did I mess up? was I distracted by the fans? 3. Prediction (what will be?) - use the knowledge obtained to predict the future ex. keep practicing and get better, over adjust (over swing) 4. Control (how can we?) - what can we control to change the behaviour or performance ex. how to get better marks, what can you control? can’t control brain freeze on a test, use strategies/techniques Scientific Method • founded on the concept of objectivity (lack of bias, researchers are detached observers and manipulators of nature) • it is a process or method of learning that uses systematic, controlled, imperial (observing specifics and categorizing), and critical filtering of knowledge acquired through experience • when we sit back and observe, we can draw theories Six Steps of the Scientific Method 1.Formulation of a specific hypothesis 2.Design of the investigation 3.Accumulation of data 4.Classification of date 5.Development of generalization 6.Verification of results, apply and valid (internal) data that can then be used to develop generalization theories and laws of human behaviour • these steps provide scientists with a way of collecting reliable and valid (internal) data that can then be used to develop generalization theories and laws of human behaviour ex. kiss goodnight, he likes me, 2nd date? • HOWEVER, this is a slow/conservative process that often external validity (practicality) ex. we get mad after sending 3 texts, WHY no answer, we want to know ASAP! (We are impatient) Professional Practice Knowledge • holistic and experimental (guided trial and error, learning/reflecting the complex interplay of many factors *BIG PICTURE ex. 100 patients with same symptoms, another walks in scientific: treat stomach ache vs. holistic: what did you eat? • it is often innovative and immediately applicable but less reliable and susceptible to bias • one person’s experience is different than another ex. high school reunion, remember when, everyone’s feelings were different (subject to bias) • the biggest difference is the central and active role of the researcher in the process of knowing (within the research rather than a neutral, outside observer) ex. coach’s view vs. player’s view vs. fan’s view, a fan watches the ball, they won’t see the key block • PRE-EMINENCE of TACIT KNOWLEDGE - a process of inference and intuition that integrates clues into meaning • SUBSIDIARY AWARENESS of CERTAIN CLUES - “we know more than we can tell” - “it just seems logical” ex. expecting a fastball at the plate, sooner or later after many strikeouts, it will come • Use UNIQUE EXPERIENCE and KNOWLEDGE to develop strategies ex. care study (n or 1), clinical reports: doc sees 100 patients with same symptoms, draw conclusion by testing for most common disease first - in depth interviews - introspective reports ex. sets, reps, will get x amount stronger - participant observations (way of generating knowledge) ex. penalty, heat of the moment - shared experiences • you must actively integrate scientific knowledge with professional experience and temper these with your own sights and intuition Note #3 Motivation • form latin word “Movere” - to move • a theoretical construct (not a directly observable phenomenon) • can’t measure readily • bottom line: choose something to participate in, in order to get a better performance/attitude/behaviour, and to have a good time • motivation is intangible and difficult to observe • if it’s not enjoyable, there is no motivation, so you stop doing it Definitions : • the DIRECTION (approach/avoid activity) of one’s effort - sometimes motivated to leave ex. walking down a dark alley, strange noises, motivated to leave • the INTENSITY (high/low) of one’s effort - a coach tries to get the players involved with high intensity, high motivation with a “pump up speech” ex. “WIN OR DIE” 1.Participation Orientated: needs, interest, personality ex. competitive personality 2.Situation Orientated: environment, weather, coach/team ex. sunny vs. rainy, w-l record, “I will have fun if it’s funny” • it is the interaction of both that creates motivation • some motivational factors can be easily changed with goal setting, reinforcement, attribution, self-confidence, etc. ex. trying to improve 1 RPM of 100 lbs to 200 lbs • others are more difficult (not readily change it) to influence ex. presence of others, anxiety, focus of attention Guidelines • both situation and personal traits motivate participants • it is important for a leader and the participants to understand what motivates an individual - if they know, we can alter the factors and increase motivation *when a coach is trying to motivate their team, not everyone is there for the same reason, the motivation technique may only work with some players, it may even add anxiety and lower the motivation of some others - multiple motives ex. some jog for social reasons while others jog for fitness - competing motives ex. injured ankle - you can’t run so do you not workout? or find another form of exercise? - shared positive/negative motives - motives change over time ex. little league vs. competitive league 3.Structure or change the environment to enhance motivation • influence factors by manipulation ex. change jog route/location 4.Critical role of the leader in influencing the motivation of the participants • extremely powerful while motivating people under their charge ex. coaching style, over-ruling the parents 5.Undesirable motives can be changed through behaviour modification techniques ex. act out for attention, distract from performance of his team, take away privileges and punishment Token Rewards as Motivators reward - “Things” used to modify or manipulate behaviour material rewards • • reinforcement - personal interactions: verbal and non-verbal *reward and reinforcement are different • token rewards - also known as: - behaviour modification - operate conditioning ex. rat in a maze finds the way out, gets cheese - token economics “Contingency Management” *CONTINGENCY: relationship between a behaviour and its consequence reward for skill/behaviour • ex. brussel sprouts eaten = dessert • CONTINGENCY MANAGEMENT: the regulation of behaviour by use of tokens to influence alter outcomes examples of token rewards: - trophies - recognition - MONEY (with jobs) - food - free time - freedom - stars/decals - love (intangible..) - privileges • undesirable behaviour can be eliminated through use of token rewards ex. swim team, attendance sheet, inter-team competition, as a result the intensity increased and the team got better • desirable behaviours can be enhanced through use of token reward ex. basketball communication skills, write down when there is positive talk, chocolate for the most positive shooting % increases and better communication • token rewards have a spill over effect on non-target behaviours ex. - satisfaction and enjoyment - attendance and properties - interest and attitudes - conformance to rules (no more swearing) - social interaction (with coach) - statements of approval/respect: less complaining token rewards can be used to improve individuals/skills and/or task performance (not • just used to change behaviours) ex. work harder to execute and not run suicides Guidelines 1. Target only a couple behaviours/skills/tasks and define/explain them in readily observable terms ex. need to get 8/10 foul shots to not run suicides 2. State the contingencies/outcomes clearly 3. Monitor the target behaviours consistently (use assistants to record) 4. Provide meaning for public behaviours feedback that focuses on self-improvement, not comparison (it will occur naturally) ex. try to encourage it, should be about self-improvement 5. Use a very simple reward system and be consistent in the application of the rewards ex. not steak, go for a few smarties 6. Think and start small and then expand to more complex 7. Consider individual differences when applying a program of behaviour modification ex. different for defense vs. forward’s rewards, experience wise *gradually work to eliminate the token system as the desirable behaviours are reached Note #4 Reinforcement • Definition : any personal interaction (evaluative comments or reactions) that will increase the occurrence or strength of a behaviour or performance • still counts as a reward deals with social interactions • ex. texts, gestures - nice hat, I impressed him with my outfit, I want to wear another outfit and impress him again Positive reinforcement : introduction of something positive that increases or • maintains a response ex. I like what you’ve done with your hair • Negative reinforcement : removal of something negative that increases or maintains a response ex. coach, you’re working hard, no windsprints, continue to work hard • Punishment: any interaction that decreases the strength of a behaviour ex. swear in practice, extra lap • Consistency : punish everyone the same for the same misdemeanor ex. no smoking or you’re off the team, but what if it’s the star player - punish the behaviour not the person ex. don’t call him “idiot”, just remind him of the rule, people can accept that they broke the rule not that they are an idiot - allow input from others into what the punishment is - don’t use physical activity as punishment ex. exercise is good for us, an extra lap is good for us, don’t spin it to seem negative - impose punishment impersonally ex. peer pressure to get individual back in line while the team is being punished - make sure that punishment isn’t perceived as reward or attention ex. class clown who doesn’t get enough attention at home, as punishment withdraw the individual/time out, instead of addressing him in front of everyone (take him out of something he wants to be a part of) - don’t punish error during play ex. harder to do 2 things at once, dribble + think at once - don’t embarrass players in front of teammates ex. take them aside, explain to them why it was wrong - use punishment sparingly but enforce it when you use it ex. I’ve let you get away with it twice, now you’re really not listening *Too often we teach to avoid punishment but don’t teach correct alternative behaviours* ex. too scared to go all out, gonna mess up and the coach will yell at me, we play avoid punishment rather than excel, it is a learning experience so tell them the alternative Social Reinforcement • non-tangible, positive or negative, evaluative comments and reactions made by others • can be presented through either: a) verbal praise or criticism/sarcasm OR b) non-verbal expressions or gestures (positive or critical) ex. “you look good today” (snicker), the gesture usually overrides what is being said (b overrides a) • there are a number of factors which influence in the degree to which social reinforcers have on impact on learning and performance - they don’t always enhanced it! social reinforcement works best when: • a) it is used on younger participants ex. when we’re young, we always look for approval b) it is used infrequently c) it is used to convert information about competence ex. “How you executed that left handed lay-up was amazing”, use specifics it is more interesting d) it is administered by significant people of the opposite sex ex. “Nice shirt” - guy, “You look hot in that shirt” - girl e) it is given by unknown or disliked others ex. rival compliments you vs. teammate/coach compliments you, or a scout f) the task being reinforced is simple, well learned, or boring even Implications 1.Children receiving continuous positive social reinforcement gain better self-esteem and more positive perceptions of their coach and team 2.A judicious use of positive social reinforcement is important in the development and maintenance of positive coach/ athlete interpersonal relations - which has a decided impact on learning (especially physical skills) ex. when we’re first learning/starting out, we need lots of positive reinforcement, everyone is supportive, then it spreads out more and we don’t need as much when we get better 3.It must be decided whether to use social reinforcement to improve performance (use sparingly) or to enhance the social environment (use liberally) or something in between Note #5 Note #6 4.Any use of positive social reinforcement should: a) be meaningful or important to the participant (not give indiscriminately) b)be contingent on some performance criteria, not just an outcome ex. swear 6 times, now 3, getting better c) be administered immediately and consistently among all participants ex. 6/10 vs. 8/10, different reinforcements (both positive) d)be given for demonstrating good effort toward the target behaviour or performance of a skill ex. getting there is just as important as achieving it e)allow for mistakes in overall performance ex. no one is perfect, if effort is there then reinforce that instead (coach should not pull a player off after one mistake, encourages tentative behaviour) f) reward appropriate social and emotional responses ex. retaliate vs. walk away, coach compliments you for not taking the penalty g)be used to maintain skills already developed by continuing to reinforce correct 50 % performance, don’t just focus on incorrect performance or negative behaviour distribution of reinforcement and punishment for effective coaching and teaching • 45 % (Kauss, 1980) Ignore (bad behaviour, so Positive reinforcement, good suggest correct way) behave. as often as possible “Time Out”, to reduce attention Punishment of intolerable to any possible reinforcement of behaviour along with intolerable behaviour suggestions for alternative behaviour • time out reduces attention of someone acting out and damaging the team, time out OVER berate in front of team Procedures for developing and maintaining specific performances or behaviours: 1.Shaping - learn the most important skill first! - breaks down skill into simple components, teaches it bit by bit - reinforcement of successfully closer approximations of the terminal performance of behavior • How to shape: a) determine present ability level b) identify steps or stages of the skill to be learned ex. bike-peddle, steer, watch traffic, uphill vs. downhill c) identify appropriate reinforcers ex. pat on back? money? d) clarify the terminal level of skill, performance, or behaviour ex. you’re going to peddle down the street and not fall and break your back e) start with the most important stages that can be accomplished successfully and provide appropriate positive reinforcement f) selectively reinforce behavior or skill execution that is increasingly similar to the terminal skill/behavior g) then begin to fill in the missing parts of identified skill, not a sequential process 2.Chaining - Do in order, no need to start with most important skill • often used if there is a same skill level all around • successive reinforcement of the component parts or segments of a skill or behaviour • How to chain behaviours or skills: - break skill down into linked segments ex. lay up (foot work, transfer speed, knee up, finger tips) - teach and reinforce each segment in turn - work on one segment until it is at or near the terminal level of execution - can work from the beginning or the end of skill • This is also known as the WHOLE-PART-WHOLE method ex. basketball lay-up 3.Reinforcement Schedules • the frequency of reinforcement schedules (beginners vs. skilled performance) a) Constant schedule - reinforce every occurrence of the desired behavior/skill - used in new or initial training b) Intermittent schedule 1.Ratio - given after a set number of correct responses ex. no reinforcement until EVERYONE gets the layout, or every third repetition 2.Interval - given after a specific amount of time has elapsed ex. after a certain amount of time, I will look for someone doing something right (2 minutes) 3.Duration - given during a set period of time ex. only given during certain drills or parts of practice (fathers day poem) Note #7 Intrinsic Interest as a Motivator 1.Intrinsic Motivation • desire to participate in an activity or taste for it’s own sake (enjoyment, excitement, challenge) • innate need to feel competent and self-determining when dealing with one’s environment (Deci, 1975) • characterized by an ongoing process of seeking and attempting to conquer challenges that are optimal for on’e ability ex. I’m not going to jump in and try to swim when I’m a bad swimmer, if I was good I would How to measure intrinsic motivation: a) free choice involvement in an activity - time spent b) presence of performance quality-complexity, creativity, flexibility, spontaneity ex. just going through the motions or working hard to show your skill 2.Extrinsic Motivation • behaviour engaged in reasons other than the activity itself, external rewards ex. all my friends join little league, guess I will too so I can be with them *Story of old man on porch and garbage gang (he interceded in their extrinsic motivation by offering external rewards) • activity becomes a mean to an end - a way to an external reward or comply with the demands of others ex. parents say eat veggies and you get ice cream, you eat them just to comply with your parents to get ice cream • produces a feeling of external control resulting in compliance or defiance and is manifested by feelings if pressure, tension or apprehension (usually reduces motivation, not always though) ex. feeling insecure/pressured by the control *Interpretation of motivation is KEY Intrinsic and Extrinsic motives are on a continuum, they are interactive but not • additive (p.g 140) - can compete or co-operate with one another How external rewards influence intrinsic have been analyzed in two way: 1.Empirical approach - research based ex.1 Lepper Green nursery study, felt tipped pens, expected rewards - no reward - unexpected reward one week later measured amount of free time spent drawing with pens Results: expected rewards spent less than half the time drawing than the no-reward or unexpected groups did *Intrinsic motivation didn’t effect the unrewarded kids as much as the expected ones did. Intrinsic Rewarded decreased motivation? • Extrinsic reward usually decreases the intrinsic interest in the activity ex. 2 Cognitive evaluation theory (Deci + Ryan 1985) - evaluates how an individual perceives the impact of external rewards and thus the effect this perception has on his/her intrinsic motivation (enhance it or undermined it) - a sub theory of the self-determination theory (Ryan + Deci 2000) - 3 basic psychological needs: affectedness, relatedness + autonomy *Thus a reward can be perceived to have a controlling or an informational function ex. interpreting control in a de motivating way a) Control - locus of causality (self determination) - if external it undermines internal motivation - if internal it enhances internal motivation b) Information - about one’s competence - greater perceived competence enhances internal motivation ex. being able to show your skill - diminished perceived competence decrease internal motivation ex. wasn’t starting QB, allstar is coming back, reward is not motivating me *SALIENCE: the importance attributed to a reward will determine how it is perceived by the recipient ex. rookies starting gives motivation vs. veteran (p.g 143 - chart) Other Empirical Propositions c) The gender of the reward recipient influences the interpretation of the reward - this is gradually changing in today’s society ex. guys expect, girls don’t expect reward star girl on boys team, motivation after she has won awards, motivation increases • Olympics: expect women will dominate just like men • wrestlers + female athletes: football decreases internal motivation (everyone gets one) • wrestler + female athletes - increases internal motivation (not given as often) d) The age of the reward recipient influences the interpretation of the reward • as kids grow older they tend to view rewards more as a bribe (control) e) Extrinsic rewards are associated with work (payment, promotion, success/status) f) Intrinsic rewards are associated with play (skill acquisition, challenge, excitement) Summary In sport and exercise, concentration providing intrinsic rewards - avoid feelings of work (stay in a cycle of play and enjoyment) ex. coaches a team not to try to win, but to have fun! Note #8 g) Competition and a focus on winning can act as an extrinsic informational reward - particularly for males • competitive success tends to increase intrinsic motivation while failure tends to decrease it • emphasize information on performance competence (mastery) when relating competition results or else losing = incompetence = decreased intrinsic motivation • “it’s not whether you win or lose, but how you play the game” 2. Anecdotal Reports - (Csikszentmihalyi, 1990) • asked if there are common pleasurable experiences in a variety of physical activities? (fun, enjoyment) • asked if there are common elements that produce these experiences? asked do they occur in other activities? • • interviewed rock climber, chess players, dancers, musicians, and basketball players • identified the term Flow Experience Flow is attained when the participant’s perceived skills are equal to the demands or • challenges of the task and the following conditions are present: 1. Complete absorption in the activity - so involved nothing else matters 2. Merging of action and awareness - totally involved in the task ex. don’t have to think about it, it just happens 3. Have a sense of control over one’s actions and environment 4. Attention is centered and focused on only a few important details 5. There is a loss of ego (self-consciousness) where there is no concern about adequacy or embarrassment 6. The demands/goals of the task are clear and the feedback is accurate and specific to the task 7. Time is transformed - seems to speed up (time flies by) 8. Effortless movement - don’t have to think about it or try too hard (automatic pilot) Flow is usually attained when both capabilities and challenges are high • *Diagram Pg. 150 • How to achieve flow: - motivation to perform ex. challenge them - optimal levels of arousal (vary by individual) - maintain narrow focus on key elements - stay in the present - pre-competitive and competitive plans and preparation - physical preparation and readiness - confidence and positive mental attitude - trust and shared sense of purpose with teammates (cohesion) - feeling good about performance - insync • Implications 1. Extrinsic rewards do not necessarily undermine or enhance intrinsic interest in an activity 2. It is the individual’s interpretation of the reward (salience) that is critical 3. It is not a question of whether or not to use an extrinsic reward - rather it is how such a reward should be used 4. It is the controlling and informational aspect of the reward that must be considered • Therefore: as a leader we should: provide an optimally challenging environment - -provide research for competence -use small rewards that are not too controlling -provide opportunity for self-determination (input and resulting responsibility) in evaluating and administering rewards -be interpersonally supportive -make people “origins” not “pawns” Note #9 Communication (Ch. 10) • all comes down to how well we communicate with each other • motivation is hard to see but seeing someone else motivated can get you motivated Communication Process 1. Decision to send message about something ex. look in the mirror, gonna have a good day 2. Encoding of the message by the sender 3. Channel through which, the message is transmitted to the receiving ex. either text, vocal, or paper 4. Decoding of the message by the receiver ex. interpret words 5. Internal response by the receiver to the message Purpose of Communication • persuade ex. roommate's room is a mess, can’t find books • evaluate ex. “How well did we play” • inform/instruct ex. fans so loud, need to use gestures • motivate/psych-up ex. so much motivation = over stimulation = not function well • problem solve/deal with conflict ex. “What is plan B?” Types of Communication • Interpersonal: occurs between two or more people - sometimes the message may not be received by the person(s) intended , or can get disturbed and therefore not transmitted, therefore it is important to know how to effectively send a message ex. “How do I know the person I am communicating with is receiving my message” • Intrapersonal: “self-talk” or thought Non-verbal: important part of interpersonal communication and comprises 50% of all • communication (tends to carry more significance) Guidelines for Sending Effective Messages 1. Be direct ex. don’t sugarcoat 2. Own your message ex. how you feel, what you believe 3. Be complete and specific ex. I don’t like you vs. I don’t like your shirt 4. Avoidable messages ex. forces people to interpret what is being said 5. State your feeling clearly 6. Separate fact from opinion 7. Focus on one thing at a time ex. Ask “How are you?” , they talk for 10 minutes (don’t jump from topic to topic) 8. Deliver messages immediately ex. loses significance when
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