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Western University
Kinesiology 1088A/B
Bob Larose

Field of Expertise (Anders Erikson): A field of study, which explains why athletes reach their full potential/expertise. Former grad student (Olaf) was one of Steve Nash’s first head coach. Olaf says that Steve would put up pylons after practice and practice for hours. Researchers found that anyone who is an expertise has devoted 10 years or/and 10 000 hours of deliberate practice to their specific domain.  Deliberate practice is cognitive demanding and effortable o Not fun but is necessary for high level skill attainment o Necessary for expertise development Study: Involves Medical Students and Physicians They showed participants X-rays of the ankle. Individuals where asked to make a diagnosis based on the X-Ray. One group was 4 year Medical Student. Other was a bored radiologist who has spent over 10 years in the domain. Y-axis how accurate they were X-axis how many trails. Medical Students did not do a good job. Radiologist killed it. They made accurate diagnosis first time and kept it constant. They were able to diagnose instantly, were Medical Students had to think If you go to the ER, make sure it’s not a medical student; make sure it’s a radiologist or at least the attending physician. Make sure they are at a level of an expertise. Information Processing: 3-Stage Approach The simplified information-processing Model: Input -> The Human -> Output  Simplified information processing approaching  We process information similar to a computer  Stages of information processing are serial and discrete o Therefore cannot occur in a parallel fashion A. Stimulus Identification Stage: 1. Stimulus Detection  Sensory information attained from external sources is detected and transformed into neurological signals  Neurological signals are mapped onto a meaningful event  Ex. The baseball is approaching my face at a high rate of speed  Not aware of this stimulus detection moment – no explicit control over it (below threshold of our consciousness) 2. Pattern Recognition  Extracting patterns or features from environmental stimuli for use in latter stages of info processing  Can be a natural or trained phenomenon  Training pattern recognition can optimize performance in temporarily demanding sports and occupations  Training for pattern recognition can enhance game day or on field decisions and performance o Peyton Manning – cerebral quarterback o Does that so he can recognize patterns and make a decision – by being able to recognize these things he can make a better response (optimize performance of athletes) Pattern Recognition Specific to Person  Had three groups: o People who play chess o People who play a bit o Chess masters  Interested in pattern recognition and memory  Two conditions: o Showed 3 groups a situation in a chess game for 3 seconds o They were asked to recall where all the chess pieces were o Masters were obviously the best  Showed 3 groups a situation of pieces which couldn’t actually happen in a game, and asked them to recall where pieces were o Masters were the worst  This shows that pattern recognition is specific to the person Expertise in Sports  Janet Starks interested with whether or not there are asymmetries in which the month someone is born and the effect of any expertise  Used elite hockey players in Canada, found month they were born  Viewed elite leagues (NHL) and less leagues  In soccer o In expertise league, 12% born in fourth quartile (last 3 months) o 2 best leagues, asymmetry in birth date o Individuals primarily in the first quartile, but as well as the second are overrepresented in elite athletic leagues o Extends to football, basketball etc o Player who starts better will have better coaching and develop more, child will be better at participating at sport because they feel good about it o Devote necessary practice to obtain expertise in that domain B. Response Selection Stage:  Once stimulus is identified, the appropriate action must be selected  E.g. to brake or swerve or swerve to avoid a parked car Factors Influencing Response Selection 1. Number of stimulus response alternatives 2. Stimulus compatibility (or cognitive compatibility) Stimulus Response Alternatives  Increasing the number of alternatives relevant to a response increases the time required to process and select an appropriate response o Choice reaction time protocols 2SR 4SR Hicks Law  Task o Choice reaction time task  Results o RT increased by 150ms every time the S-R alternatives doubled o Thus, relationship between choice RT and the logarithm of the S-R alternatives is linear  Linear increase in reaction time as a function of increasing bits of information  As you double number of SR, increased reaction time by 150ms  Equation for a straight line: Y=a+b(X) o This equation can be adapted to compute a RT value in a choice RT task o ChoiceRT = a + b[Log (N)] 2  Allow us to predict behavior o Log2(N) provides us a measure of bits of information – index of difficulty o As you increase bits, you have to process more information (bits tell us how much info is processed) o More practiced you are a task, the more shallower the slope is (process information quicker) o Effort: eyes>hands>feet  A and B are empirical constants o A and B are measured o 153 Is slope, change in reaction time associated with 1 unit increase in bits of information o Slope is age specific, young adults have shallower slope o Older adults have steep slope  Older adults take longer to process information correctly  Neuroconnections degrade as a function of normal aging process  Older adults selectively move slower  Always want a correct response Information ‘Bit’ A bit defined as the amount of information required to reduce uncertainty by half How many decisions in each case? 2 2 = had to reduce uncertainty by half two times to find the “X”, had to process 2 bits of info 2 = had to reduce uncertainty by half, 3 times. 3 bits of information OR what do you need to raise the base of 2 by to equal 8 SR (3 times 3 therefore 3 bits) Stimulus Response Compatibility  Paul Fitz: interested in stimulus and response compatibility (specifically special compatibility between stimulus and response)  Extent to which stimulus and response are associated in a natural way  longer reaction time in condition B when lack of compatibility between stimulus and response  Subjects are faster and make fewer errors for spatially compatible (A) as opposed to an incompatible (B) Word-Color Capability (Stroop Effect)  Incompatible mapping between word meaning and a printed word colour increased RT and errors o E.g. colour black that reads “red”  When lack of compatibility with stimulus and response, dorsal lateral pre-frontal cortex needs to get involved (frontal lobe)  Responsible for top-down cognitive control (thinking about it, takes a lot of time to use area of cortex) C. Response Programming Stage:  Following response selection the action must be translated into appropriate muscular signals to achieve task goals Henry and Rogers (1960)  Task: o Lift finger from key following stimulus o Lift fingers from key and move 33cm to grasp to a tennis ball o Lift finger from key and move 33cm to grasp a tennis ball then move in the opposite direction to grasp a second tennis ball  Results: o RT increased as a function of task complexity o Reflects time necessary to prepare the movement during the response-programming stage  Reaction time increased as a function of increasing movement complexity  People are planning their movements entirely (plan all elements)  Put together a movement plan prior to their response  Developed motor programs – package of motor commands that tells us how to move Attention  We can detect stimulus well if it is a big change in our environment  Hardwired into CNS – unexpected stimulus excites neurons within superior colliculus – reflex  Involuntarily detect our eyes towards the stimulus  We only have so much attention, will not devote it to things we cannot see (e.g. change in cornfield)  Neisser – determining whether or not consciousness and attention are linked together  Made students memorize list of 25 words  Presented 100 words, 25 had stimulus (electric shock)  Did it beginning of fall semester, brought them back in April  75 words entirely new, 25 associated with stimulus included in follow-up  Measured galvanic skin response (GSR) – provides a measure of skin conductance  Activation within autonomic nervous system (below level of consciousness)  Neisser found 25 words that were originally paired with stimulus elicited a very high GSR response during the following session Attention as a single resource  Processing Resources o Limited processing resource o Limited capacity/supply o 2 tasks/processing activities can be performed if their attention demands  E.g. answering a cell phone & driving a car Response Selection -> Response Execution Important Terms 1. Parallel processing: a type of information processing that allows people to handle TWO or MORE streams of information at the same time 2. Serial Processing: type of information processing that permits people to handle ONE stream of information at the same time – classic model 3. Double Stimulation Paradigm: a research design involving separate reaction to two different stimuli presented close together in time – 2 stimuli presented in close temporal proximity 4. Interstimulus Interval: the length of time separating two stimuli in a double-stimulating paradigm: often referred to as stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) 5. Psychological Refractory Period: the delay in responding to the second of two closely spaced stimuli  Information processing channel: allows only one processing activity at a time o Consider the cocktail party  When you’re at a cocktail party and having a conversation with the person in front of you, it is only possible to be aware of the person in front of you because you can’t pay attention to all conversations at once  This is serial processing, only one action can go through the “stimulus identification stage”  BUT someone may call your name across the room, so in some way people need to have multiple levels of attention  Bottleneck does not occur at stimulus identification, but rather occurs between stimulus identification and response selection o Ability to explain cocktail party phenomenon, because at stimulus identification you have the ability to process information in parallel o Parallel processing until Response selection, then secrete processing (Norman, 1968) o Consider the Stroop effect Attention as a Multiple Resource  Multiple resources o Assumes that we have more than one central resources o Interference between activities occurs if we draw on the same resources o No interferences if we draw from different resources  Distinct pools of attention that are specific to cognitive, verbal, spatial and motor capabilities  Allen Badley  If second task is too demanding, resource B will exceed into resource A and take over attention  Pool for spatial activities (Resource A)  Pool for cognitive activities (Resource B)  Pool for motor activities (Resource C) Psychological Refractory Period  Think of the physiological refractory period (can’t excite new stimulus)  Delay in responding to the second of 2 stimuli presented in rapid succession  Interference in selection and organization of response  2 stimuli 2 response, pair tasks together in close temporal proximity  Stim 1 comes on, 75ms later Stim 2 comes on  Reaction time by first response is not influenced  Occurs at response selection stage of 3 stage process  In football, juking to the right is stim 1, juking back to the left is stim 2  Player tries to respond to first stimulus, but delayed to respond to second stimulus  Stimulus 2 waits until individual has programmed response for stimulus 1  Delay in responding to second stimulus  Occurs at response selection stage of information  Temporal proximity between stim1 and stim2 are very close  50-55ms seconds – largest impact of psychological refractory period o Longer the difference between stimulus, the slower the reaction of response 2  No refractory between 0-50ms because it is processed as a single stimulus  After about 150ms, stimulus 1 has already been processed, so stim 2 RT will not be altered  Insterstimulus Interval (ms) – difference between stimulus 1 and stimulus 2, in time PRP  Stimulus 1 = fake move o Want opponent to process fake move and organize a response  Stimulus 2 = actual move o Capitalize on PRP process to delay response to actual move Attentional Capacity and Instruction A. Attention directed toward the initiation (and sometimes termination) of a movement is critical B. Automate elementary components of a skill prior of integrating additional movement constraints Putting practice to the test! (Leavitt, 1979): Six age groups (6,8,11,14,19) performing in each of four experimental conditions: 1. Skating only 2. Skating and identifying geometric figures 3. Skating and stickhandling 4. Skating, stickhandling and identifying figures Skating speed was examined in each age-group in each experimental condition  Had to skate from blue line-blue line in 4 conditions  Stick handling= secondary task  Geometric figures taking away attentional resources that you have available to the primary task of skating  Between 6 and 8 year olds, increase in skating time  As a function of age, differences between conditions went away  Different tasks between 10,11,14 year olds did not include skating times  From 10-19, no difference between skating performance between task  When you train new skill, let them focus 100% on primary task, without having other secondary task  Structure early practice environments, almost all practice environment structured around primary tasks  19 year olds don’t put much attentional resources in skating Viceman  Participants had to react to stimuli and make local and global decision o Congruent and incongruent o Global decision: little “s” formed together to make a giant “S” o Local decision: individual components of stimulus, little “s”  When you have to make a local decision, and local features incongruent with global features (a bunch of Hs’ making up the shape of an S) o People have long reaction time o Action slip  Right IFG was robustly active when people made short decisions  When people made long decisions, right IFG was not robustly active  Right IFG responsible to stimulus triggered orientation of attention  ACC (Anterior Cingulate Cortex) and MFG (Middle Frontal Gyrus) o Work together as network to allow for very short reaction times for the prevention of action slips o When participants had long reaction times, these three structures were NOT robustly active o ACC responsible for conflict resolution and conflict monitoring o MFG is responsible for maintaining task relevant goals in working memory  Experimenter flash stimulus to participant o IFG draws attention to stimulus o MFG becomes active, tells performer whether to report to local or global features of task (MFG reminds you what you want to do) o ACC becomes active in case of incongruency between local/global features, conflict resolution (tells you information about stimulus, so you can report correct response)  Right IFG sending signals to visual cortex, telling visual cortex how excited it should get in relation to stimulus o You want IFG telling visual cortex to be open in attention demanding task  Backward projection from right IFG, sending information back (posterior) to a basic sensory structure (visual cortex = basic sensory structure)  Right IFG directs attention to appropriate stimulus within environment o Right IFG high levels of activation = correct response o Low levels = incorrect response  Prior to Viceman study, most neuroscience thought information and projection in brain only fed forward o Here Viceman is showing that the opposite is true o Frontal structures send information back to posterior of brain, telling them how sensitive they should be to new stimulus Coordination and Attention  Bimanual coordination: Stimulus movement of the two hands 1. Two hands seem to be “linked together” 2. Timing structure of the two hands in the same Below: Left finger = blue, Right finger = red  Antiphase coordination pattern: 180 degrees out of phase  Frequency of flexion and extension is speeding up from left to right  Transition from stable anti-coordination pattern to unstable pattern  Low movement frequencies, we can adopt two independent temporal structures o But as speed of response increases, attention system cannot keep up o It adopts single temporal structure, limbs all into phase  Some people can suppress information converging between left and right hemisphere (no corpus collosum)  People with no corpus collosum can perform antiphase tasks at high frequency Gamma-V experiment: 1. With your left hand practice drawing 4-cm high gamma symbols  continue until you can do the task effectively 2. Next, draw 4 cm high letter “V”s with you right hand 3. Next, draw each figure at the same time using the individuals hands used for practice 4. Next, analyze your figures; what do they look like 5. Will extensive practice improve performance? Results: When drawing both simultaneously, the V’s and gammas will look similar  This is because of the timing of movement is disrupted o Extremely difficult to adopt 2 distinct coordination patterns with different temporal structures  In order to attend to both equally, they must have the same temporal structure otherwise, they cannot attend to both at the same time This is because of the Cerebellum (central timing mechanism)  The cerebellum is limited in attentional demand, can only adopt 1 timing property  If extrend capacity cannot handle it so everything starts to move with the same temporal pattern Note: With training/practice you can drastically enhance your abitility to adopt 2 distinct properties  Musicians can develop their CNS to adopt multiple timing channels  Common spatial instruction  Not enough attentional resources to devote between two special structures  Spatial temporal organization within attention system is limited  Common spatial temporal structure  Attention system can only devote so much space to single temporal structure Memory  Psychologists only interested in explicit memory (factual memory)  Semantic (cognitive) memory distinct from motor memory  Semantic memory – mediated by cortical structures  Motor memory – cerebellum + more  Cerebellum lesion, terrible time learning new motor skill Jane Goodall  Prozotagnozia – face blindness – unable to recognize faces  Able to facially recognize all chimpanzees, not humans  Mr. T had bilaterial stroke, lesion in temporal lobe known as fusiform face area (FFR)  Humans have evolved to a designated spatial area for recognition of human faces  Memory: the capability of individuals to retain and utilize information in various ways for various periods of time  1. Acquisition 2. Retention 3. Retrieval  Comprised of 3 systems: o Short-term sensory store memory o Short-term (or working) memory o Long-term 1) Short-term Sensory Store (STSS)  Brief duration  Large capacity  Verdical (Picture with camera stores all info, STSS operates in same way. Only there for brief period but exact, and precise)  Pre-categorial – no conscious awareness of information in system  How can we determine existence of an STSS? o Exact and precise memory of the visual image you just saw, lasts for seconds o George Sperling (very important to human memory- semantic and storing information for movement) o Presented a matrix of memories (10ms flash) o Researchers used a whole report technique – flashed matrix, told to recall anything within the matrix o They had 0% recall when using the whole report technique  Used same presentation, with partial report technique – flash of 3x3 matrix, high, medium, or low tone o High tone meant recall top row, medium middle, low low o Tone either occurs concurrently or slightly after o Sperling would either set tone with matrix or delay it o When the tone was presented concurrently with the matrix, there was 100% recall accuracy (Remember, whole report had 0%) o If participants get out information really quickly they can repeat it o Delay of tone provides test for how long information can be maintained in sensory store o Short term sensory store can reliably maintain information for under 150ms o At 300ms, just under 50% accuracy, less than 50% accuracy means individual are no longer reliably keeping information in memory system o 300ms is time information reliably persists in short term memory store o After 300 ms, not an accurate trace o Participants don’t know what row they have to recall yet they still have accuracy (STSS has large capacity)  Ellipitical acts as spatial cue asking participants to recall information contained in ellipse (does not appear at same time as matrix) o Recall accuracy is 0% o Ellipse erases information in short term sensory store, information contained in same spatial location o Original stimuli of D and F, in original stimulus array, the ellipse wipes out the information  4 letters between 2 rows of 4 numbers o Asks for recall of row that contained letters o Recall accuracy on task was 0% o Short term sensory store cannot categorize stimuli, does not know if its looking at letters or numbers (pre-categorial) o Know how to link each study for STSS to specific trait (e.g. above is pre-categorial because unable to recognize letters or numbers) 2) Short Term Memory (STM):  Buffer between STSS and long-term memory  Brief duration (not as brief as STSS)  Limited capacity (7 +/- 2 bits of information)  Categorical  Can rehearse and consolidate information  Semantic and conscious  Daniel Kish (batman) – echo locator o Visual cortex is now part of system that allows echo location o Sound inputs to V1  Memory and attention are strongly intertwined  Paying attention can be seen as holding in memory  Attention is required for rehearsal  The longer an item is attended to (held in memory), the higher chance it will be remembered later  You can keep info in STM as long as you are able to rehearse that information (it will decay)  After you rehearse for a while, it becomes consolidated shifts to long term memory system  Rehearsal is important because STM is brief duration, and info can persist in memory system as long as its rehearsed Brown-Peterson Task  Try to remember three letters, e.g., XJC  When given a number (e.g., 307), start counting backwards in threes (307, 304, 301, 298,…)  When you write text appears, write down the letters you remember  This has to be done several times to obtain the effect  Designed to determine the temporal duration of STM, and see how long unrehearsed information can remain in the short term memory  Backward counting task = distractor task  y axis = how correct  The results typically show very low memory performance  The reason is that rehearsal of the letters is prevented by the counting task  Unrehearsed information can reliably persist in STM for 3 seconds  X axis: trial number  Y axis: frequency correct recall (accuracy)  Control line is remembering a trigram (decrease of recall accuracy as a function of increasing trials)  In experimental condition, first 3 trials participants remember trigram th  In 4 trial, instead of trigram, participants had to recall 3 numbers (along with backwards counting)  With 3 numbers, accuracy shoots back up to near 100%  Release of proactive interference  When you change semantic category, participants get release of proactive interference Proactive vs Retroactive Interference  Proactive interference: the forgetting of currently learned material produced by interference from previously learned event  Retroactive interference: process in which an event learned during a retention interval leads to forgetting of a previously learned event  When you study for finals, you attempt to consolidate a lot of info  You can prevent proactive interference by interspersing a language course between two math courses Sleep and Memory  Sleep prevents forgetting and makes memories resistant to pro- and retroactive interference  Especially if sleep closely follows learning  Sleep allows for hippocampus-neocortical dialogue and information transfer  With sleep hippocampus and neocortex synchronize their activity  Sleep allows you to be persistent to proactive and retroactive interference  If you study and go to bed, information is fresh in CNS (synchronicity between temporal lobe and hippocampus)  Temporal lobe must talk to hippocampus in order to formulate new long term memory  Slow-wave-sleep (SWS) – very deep sleep  Random eye movement (REM) sleep predominates the second half of the sleep cycle o Can occur during first or second half o Not a deep sleep  SWS important for consolidating explicit memories (i.e. studying for a hpysics exam) o You need at least 8 hours of SWS for temporal synch of temporal lobe and hippo campus  REM sleep important for consolidating implicit memories (i.e. studying for practical exam) o You can get enough REM sleep if you take a nap o More for motor skills State dependent memory: the state your in when you learn that information, you’re better to recall it in the same state Robert Kurt  Liked scuba diving, underneath pool they were learning list of words  Half the individuals who learned words under water, half had to recall it on the deck and then the other half had to recall the information under water  The ones who learned it on the pool deck or underwater, recalled it best in the state that they learned it o The ones who switched environments had worse performance  The environment one is in effects ones ability to appropriately and accuractely recall information  Variability practice Golf analogy practicing on short shots (golf), every other shot could be different distances rather than the same shot over and over (varying up practice schedule) o if you hit same shot over and over again for 50 trials – blocked performance schedule o if you change up from shot to shot: random performance schedule  Error = y axis. Trials = x axis (above 50 trials). 2 conditions, blocked and random Hypothesis: error will decrease as a result of function of trials The random = they may get a little better but not a lot better. Random practice groups will have some improvement, but nearly as much as the blocked Therefore the blocked demonstrates more improvement 24 hours later: Have everyone shoot the ball to the same distance (associated with the blocked group). Blocked people had more errors. The random group is showing a very strong learning benefit, specific to motor skills.  Random has much better long term consolidation, improved motor performance (switching from task to task requires you to think a lot more about what you are doing)  Variable vs blacked, Variable = leads to long term memory benefit, Blocked = leads to a transient performance benefit  Four conditions: 1. Visual Condition 2. Brief Delay Condition (0,500,2000ms)  Hold finger in initial position, lose sense of surroundings  When auditory tone goes off they lose vision of the environment preview period – lose vision of – environment either 500 or 2000ms before given a cue to move  Open Loop Condition o 0ms delay condition – significant increase in their variable error (increases at 500, then more at 2000ms  Results: suggest that vision for action is different than visual memory for implicit tasks (movement)  There is no memory for vision that is as accurate as having vision during movement (to initiative a response)  Researchers looked at how long individuals can maintain proprioceptive information relating to the location of a target  Never have vision in this experiment  Cued to make a response right away or delayed intervals  Used robotic arm  Found that proprioceptive information stored in memory is reliable until 2 seconds’  Visual information decays very quickly and provides unstable representation of target location o Location of response mediated via extrinsic coordinates  Proprioceptive information decays more slowly o Location of response mediated via intrinsic coordinates o Target location is mediated in something outside of the body o Decay is specific to response Clive  Left and right temporal lobe, left frontal lobe, and hippocampus impaired  Memory problems and slurs – repeats himself  Clive has no difficulty getting information into his short memory, but he cannot consolidate those memories o Explicit long term memories  Damage to left frontal lobe is why he is so emotional  Musical abilities is still in tact o Not a lot of lesions in right cerebral hemisphere o Allows short-term memories such as music to be possible Ebbinghouse – german psychologist  Studied using cigar rolling  On graph, savings = how much info was remembered, retention  Ebbinghaus findings apply to all motor skills  Visual & verbal instructions on how to roll a cigar – 100% recall accuracy, 20 minutes later it dropped to 60%  Dramatic loss early on (within the first day)  Plateau in recall accuracy – not a large diminishment, information doesn’t decay over a month but huge loss after 1 day  Best way to structure environment for best memory is to come in several times during the day to avoid the huge savings loss in the first day Forgetting  There is currently no theory that explains why we forget  Forgetting seems to follow rather strict rules, but even these have not been fully explored  It is postulated that very well rehearsed knowledge will never be forgotten (Harry Barrick’s ‘permastore’)  Once you’ve consolidated information in your long term memory, it is never forgotten, it s always there in the cortex, the problem is retrieval  Primary effect: remembering what’s at the beginning of a list (rehearse first words, less likely to decay)  Recency effect: remembering what’s at the end of a list (haven’t had significant time to decay so they remain in short term memory loss)  Short term memory is all about rehearsal  People with symptoms of concussion tend not to demonstrate primary effect (cognitively demanding task to rehearse)  Typical memory recall curve:  Robust primary effect  Recency at end  Words in middle not as accurate  Flat until 8 word, then shoots up to a normal level Henry M  Most extensively studied case study in neurosciences  Bike accident, hit head on pavement, got petite mal seizures (epilepsy)  Developed into grand mal seizure, epilepsy takes full control of brain  Seizure caused by bilaterial temporal lobes and hippocampus  Dense form anterograde amnesia  HM had profound impairment of explicit memory (and episodic information)  HM was able to retain a certain class of memories  Canadian neuroscientists parsed LTM into 3 sections Long Term Memory (LTM)  Items practiced or rehearsed access LTM  Has limitless capacity  Composed of three subsystems 1. Procedural Memory  Stores knowledge of “how to do” a skill or activity  We know how to do something, but not be able to verbal describe it well (e.g. shooting a basketball)  Implicated tasks not mediated cortically but rather cerebellum, when practiced  Procedural = implicit cerebellum 2. Semantic Memory  General knowledge about the world developed from many experiences  Factual and conceptual  E.g. date Columbus discovered America  Memory for factual information, cognitive, cortically mediated (top-down)  Semantic + episodic = explicit cortex 3. Episodic Memory  Knowledge about personally experienced events  E.g. where we were when Princess Diana died  Top-down,
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