Marchi et al. (2013) Consequences of repeated blood brain barrier disruption in
Watched 5 footballs teams and measured total number of heads hits for the duration
of a season. None of the players had a concussion but all had head hits. They
measured the level of a protein, S100B. When hit, the protein leaves the Blood Brain
Barrier causing an immune response and can lead to a cognitive problem in the
Blood-brain barrier disruption from sub-concussion leads to surge of S100B protein
and an adverse immune response in the brain.
Individuals with increased S100B levels showed structural changes via diffusion
Used Diffusion Tension Imagery (DTI) to look at brain structure.
Measures level of axon connectivity in the brain
How different parts of the pain are connected to other parts of the brain.
Individuals with head hits, they have a decrease in axon connectivity during
the season, but also before and after head hits
Important because now have a blood test (check for protein) or use an
imagery technique (DTI) to see if a player is ok to play.
Female Soccer has the highest level of the concussions because of headers.
Alan Snider- Thinking cap- put on before task and improves cognitive thoughts.
1Hz per second in the left hemisphere, turns down the left hemisphere, the
right will take over. Most artistic and spatial thinking.
Would not be advocated
Information Processing: 3- Stage Approach:
The simplified information-processing model
Most organisms get an input and then there’s an output. (Skinard)
Humans use a cognitive approach because they have a brain.
Input Stimulus Identification Response Selection Response Programing Output
Each stage is processed in a serial and discrete way.
One stage must be fully completed before moving onto subsequent stages
They cannot happen in parallel (simultaneously)
A. Stimulus Identification Stage:
1. Stimulus Detection:
Sensory information attained from external sources is detected
and transformed into neurological signals
Neurological signals are mapped onto a meaningful event
It just happens, there is no elicit concussions
o Happens beyond our control.
E.g. This baseball is approaching my face at a high rate of speed
o Purely sensory based processing 2. Pattern Recognition
Extracting patterns or features from environmental stimuli for use
in latter stages of info processing
Can be a natural or trained phenomenon
o Can train to improve ability to detect a stimulus
E.g. Quarterback in football: Manning spends a lot of time in film
room studying game situation so he can recognize patterns in the
game so he can optimize a better response.
Studies show that athletes who partake in film study have a better
Training pattern recognition can optimize performance in
temporally demanding sports and occupations
Training patter recognition can optimize performance in temporally demanding
sports and occupations.
Study: (Chase and Simon (1973))
A study of pattern recognition/ information processing
Studied 3 groups in chess:
1. Chest Masters
2. Average game experience
3. Novices (newbies)
Interested in memory ability.
Showed quick presentation of a board with chess pieces. Told to reenact where the
If shown real scenario, chess masters had the best results and got 100 percent by
the second trail.
If shown fake scenario, chess masters performed worse than the other two groups.
Something specific in recalling of chess pattern that depict a real game
This leaves groundwork for studying pattern recognition but as well expertise.
Field of Expertise (Anders Erikson):
A field of study, which explains why athletes reach their full potential/expertise.
Former grad student (Olaf) was one of Steve Nash’s first head coach. Olaf says that
Steve would put up pylons after practice and practice for hours. Researchers found
that anyone who is an expertise has devoted 10 years or/and 10 000 hours of
deliberate practice to their specific domain.
Deliberate practice is cognitive demanding and effortable
o Not fun but is necessary for high level skill attainment
o Necessary for expertise development
Involves Medical Students and Physicians They showed participants X-rays of the ankle. Individuals where asked to make a
diagnosis based on the X-Ray. One group was 4 year Medical Student. Other was a
bored radiologist who has spent over 10 years in the domain.
Y-axis how accurate they were
X-axis how many trails.
Medical Students did not do a good job.
Radiologist killed it. They made accurate diagnosis first time and kept it constant.
They were able to diagnose instantly, were Medical Students had to think
If you go to the ER, make sure it’s not a medical student; make sure it’s a radiologist
or at least the attending physician. Make sure they are at a level of an expertise.
Study (Janos Stark):
Interested in any asymmetries with the month someone was born and if it
influenced expertise. Looked into elite hockey players in Canada and broke them up
in to quartiles (Jan-March, etc..) Look at players from OHL and NHL to people in
Separate study did the same idea with Soccer players in Europe.
Conclusion: Individuals born in the first quartile, but as well in the second quartile
are more predominant in the higher leagues.
Reason: When two kids playing at the same age; the one in January will be bigger
and stronger than the one born in December. As a result of being naturally better
because of age, they will gain higher amounts of confidence and attention, resulting
in that player having a better chance than someone else.
Coaches will devote more time and attention to their athletes.
B. Response Selection
o Most well studied stage
o Takes a lot of processing in the frontal cortex= cognitively complex
Once stimulus is identified, the appropriate action must be selected
E.g. “to brake or swerve to avoid a parked car”
Factors influencing response selection:
1. Number of Stimulus Response Alternatives
Increasing the number of alternatives relevant to a response increases
the time required to process and select an appropriate response.
When you go from a situation with two stimuli to four stimuli.
Hick’s Law (Hick and Hyman Same study with same result but Hick summited it
Task: Choice reaction time task
Results: RT increased by 150ms every time the S-R alternatives doubled
Thus, relationship between choice RT and the logarithm of the S-R alternatives is
For reaction time a linear reaction time as a function of increasing bits.
Bit= index of information
As bit increase, you have to increase information.
Bit= how much information is being processed. Equation for a straight a line y=a+bx
This equation can be adapted to compute an RT value in a choice RT task.
Choice RT= a+b[log(base2)(N)] N=stimulus alternatives
o Important because if someone can predict behavior by math, can
become extremely useful.
o Choice RT= 212+153(Log(base2)(N))
o Slope: Age specific
Young adults have a much shallower slope than older adults
Older adults have a much steeper slope.
Older adults take much longer to process information and that Most
is why they have much steeper slopes. believe it’s
With processing of information its either a hardware issue or a
a software issue
Hardware: neuron connection degrade which impede the combinati
connection of the central nervous system (more popular on of the
Software: older adults selectively move slower and make
decisions that take much more time because they always want
to correct (never want to make an incorrect response)
o More practiced you are in a task, the quicker they can make a decision,
the shallower the slope.
Slope of Hick-Hymans will be influenced by type of stimulus (effector)
and what you are doing to interact with stimulus
o Eyes are quicker than hands/feet
2. Stimulus Response Compatibility:
Idea brought up by Paul Fitts.
o Remember as father of ergonomics
Extent to which stimulus and response are associated in a natural way
Made an experiment where two types of stimulus A and B. If light A turned
on, on the right, will react with right hand (same with left). In stimulus B, if
light turned-on on the right, will react with left hand. More important to
notice amount of mistakes made by B.
World-Color Compatibility (Stroop Effect)
Incompatible mapping between word meaning and a printed word
colour increased RT and errors.
Reason why lack of compatibility between spatial:
Dorsal Lateral prefrontal cortex (DLC) has to get involved which control Top-
Down cognitive control. Whenever you need to think about something and
make a cognitive decision, this area of the brain has to get involved. It is very
powerful and effective but the time it takes to get a response, increases
Reaction Time. 3. Response Programming Stage:
Following response selection, the action must be translated into appropriate
muscular signals to achieve task goals
Henry and Rogers (1960):
o Stimulus and response alternative for the movement were held
1. Lift finger from key following stimulus (200ms)
2. Lift finger from key and move 33cm to grasp a tennis ball (450ms)
3. Lift finger from key and move 33cm to grasp a tennis ball, then move
in the opposite direction to grasp a second tennis ball (800ms)
Increase complexity of movement from 1-3 as a function of increased
RT increased as a function of task complexity
Reflects time necessary to prepare the movement during the response
We pre-plan our movements
o Takes longer for more complex movements
Henry and Rogers show that people put together a movement plan prior
to response. Before Henry and Rodgers people believed we would do
things on cue, only once a stimulus is over, start planning another. Henry
and Rogers started off with making a package of motor commands, which
tells us how to move causing us to develop a motor program by
increasing movement complexity.
What is attention?
"Focalization and limitation of information processing resources” (Schmidt &
o Both Schmidt and Wrisberg are both kinesiologists and only refers to
if you are aware of it
o However, you don’t have to be aware of a stimulus to attend to
o Therefore, attention and consciousness are not the same thing
We can attend and response to stimulus if it reflects an unexpected and
readily change to our environment. Dynamic and unexpected changes affects
our neurons in the Colliculus causing our eyes to be put towards the stimulus
When it happens gradually, we will not attend to the change.
Told to focus only on kids passing a ball, count how many passes
When the gorilla passes through you do not notice it.
Change blindness: Picture with rocks
Grass gradually changes into rock
Didn’t notice it
Wanted to see if attention and consciousness are linked
Presented students with 100 words and 25 of the specific words were paired
with mild electrical stimulus. (Invasive stimulus)
He did the study in the fall and brought them back in the spring.
When he did the experiment, 100 words were said and 75 were new with the
same 25 that they were shocked with.
He measured Galvanic skin response measures activation in autonomic
nervous system occurs below the level of consciousness
The 25 words that were paired with the electrical stimulus had high GSR.
Very clear and specific evidence that consciousness and evidence are not tied
Nicer provides an elegant example of attentional processing without awareness
Attention could be a conscious or subconscious process
Attention as a Single Response:
Speaking to someone in a car allows you to speak with less attentional demand than
when there is a cellphone involved.
Limited processing resource
Limited capacity/ supply
o Only you exceed resources, get a decrement in performance
2 tasks/ processing activities can be performed if their attention demands do
not exceed resource capacity
Attention supply= limited capacity
There has been no direct difference in accident rates/attentional control as a
function of using a handheld vs. hands-free device
Research has shown that drivers are at less risk of getting into an accident when the
speakers are projected towards you as opposed to speakers on the side/back
Q: How does speaking to a passenger differ form speaking on a hands-free cell
A: Both yourself and passenger are in the SAME environment
If adult passenger= active participants
o Knows when to talk/tone it down
o Knows when your busy dealing with traffics vs. when its easy to listen
Adult with kids in car are at higher risks of accidents
o Little kids cant be active participants
o Usually very distracting
Unaware of surroundings, don’t know when to tone it down
Attention for Control:
When is our attentional spacing limiting?
Information Processing: Limited capacity processing channel
Limitations in the number of activities that can pas through channel at the
Serial vs. Parallel processing:
o Stimulus Identification
o Response Selection (3 Stage model)
o Response Execution
Each stage of processing takes time
Broadbent 1958: Early Model of Attention:
Stimulus Identification: This is where the bottleneck takes place
Only one channel of information can be processed at this stage
The limitation in our attentional system originates in the stimulus identification.
When you are at a cocktail party and talking to a person, can only actually hear the
person talking to. You can hear other people talking but can only understand that Barry Sanders,
person you are talking to. Heaths
Flaw: In the cocktail phenomenon; if you are across the room and say favorite
someone’s name they can hear it running back,
Therefore some type of multiple stimulus identification demonstrates
Norman (1968): “Late Theory” psychological
Believes the bottleneck occurs between stimulus identification and response refraction
All conversations can be identified but it is the conversation you choose to hear
that actually makes it into response selection.
Combines parallel and discrete processing
The Psychological refraction period:
Delay in respondinging to the second of 2 stimuli presented in rapid succession
Interference in selection and organization of response.
e.g. Barry Sanders can fake out defenders really well because of PFR
2 stimuli. Two task are paired in close proximity.
On their own both stimuli have same reaction time (both 150ms)
Together Stimulus 1 to Reaction 1 happens in same amount of time as it did on its
own (150ms). However, stimulus 2 to reaction 2, stimulus 2 have been increased by
100milli seconds (250ms).
In sports, in a juke, because a defended is trying to defend the first part of the juke,
they get lost and cannot defend the other part of the juke because they are still
trying to tend to first juke.
Approx. 50ms. Between onset of stimulus 1 and stimulus 2
Optimized/ heightened PRP state
Between 0-50ms= essentially no impact on RT 2
You process both as a single stimulus, so your response time would be that of
a simple RT task
50ms. And beyond= able to actually perceive 2 stimuli Good Example of the Late theory of Attention:
Two stimuli are being tended to in the response selection. Must tend to the first one
and the second stimulus must “wait”. After the first stimulus is identified, the second
can then be tended to.
If 25ms, no refraction period because happens so close together
If 50-1500ms, there is a refraction period because there will be a bottleneck in the
processing of information.
In a sport want to juke out at 50-150ms
Parallel Processing: When you can process multiple channels concurrently.
Serial Processing: a type of information processing that permits people to handle
ONE stream of information at a time
Double Stimulation Paradigm: 2 stimulus presented together in proximity
Interstimulus Interval: Time separating 2 stimuli
Psychological Refraction Period: Delay in responding to two stimuli.
Attention as a Multiple Resource:
Assumes that we have more than one central resource
Interference between activities occurs if we draw on the same resources
No interference if we draw from different resources
No interference will occur between activities as long as those activities do
not occur with the same pool of resources
You can walk and talk because do not use same skills.
British resources that took a lead to move to Stanford University where he got
addicted to football. He was driving along road and he was listening to music. Then
the football game turned on starts imaging what is happening in the football
game where are the players etc. Then he gets into a car accident. He therefore
concluded that you have multiple pools of attention.
Attention is mediated by distinct pools of resources
Differ for cognitive, motor, spatial tasks.
Listening to football game is high spatial, also driving is high spatial
o Therefore the combination exceeds his spatial resources, which leads
to an accident
Proposed 3 pool of attentional resource:
1. Pool for spatial activities
2. Pool for cognitive activities
3. Pool for motor activities
A contemporary theory of processing multiple attentional resources
Different parts of brain active for spatial vs. cognitive vs. motor tasks
Badly’s model works extremely well even better than one stimulus Neural Correlates of Focuses verses Lapsed Attention:
Why do you put the Cheerios in the fridge and the milk in the cupboard?
Action Flips result of right IFG activation decreased
Heath was going to a conference and he was on a plane. And met the guy who came
up with the theory.
Participants had to find a way to make a global vs. a local decision.
Global: if you make an S out of S’s, will be able to be made up into an S
Local: if you look at one stimulus, local feature which is comprised of an S.
Participants had to make a congruent decision, where they had to make a
global and local decision using s.
He also made an incongruent decision, where he had an S made out of Es.
When you have to make a local classification of an incongruent stimulus, you make a
lot of mistakes.
While they made this decision, he was using fMRI. When people did the task
correctly, high activation of Right IFG. When people made an incorrect decision,
there was no activation in the right IFG.
Conclude: Right IFG is responsible for the stimulus trigger of attention.
Right IFG directs attention to relevant stimuli in environment.
When you had to make a local decision and the local features were of an
incongruent environment, they had long reaction times.
When people had short reaction times the right IFG was robustly active.
When people had long reaction times there was no robust activity in right IFG.
In part: Viesman concluded that the right IFG was responsible for the stimulus
Viesman found that there were two other structures: the ACC (anterior cingulate
cortex) or MFG (Middle frontal gyros). Found that the three together worked
together to allow for short reaction times and therefore prevented attention
When participants had long reaction times or they made an error, these three
actions were no active.
If they are not ALL active during a task, you may have an action slip.
o Action slip such as putting cornflakes in fridge
ACC conflict resolution and conflict moderating
MFG Maintaining task relevant goals in working memory.
Stimulus turns on, IFG turns attention to stimulus, MFG reminds you what to do,
*ACC figures out what is happening.
Viesman also found that the right IFG was sending signals to the visual cortex.
These signals were telling the visual cortex how excited it should get.
If right IFG is not sending a lot of signals to visual cortex, not much being
processed. If a lot of signals being sent, causing visual cortex to “open more” and
allows more information to be processed.
The visual cortex is a basic visual cortex. Prior to Viesman, people believed that
the visual cortex only sent information forward however this experiment showed that projection can go from anterior to posterior sending signals to the
visual cortex showing it how active it should be.
o Frontal structure can send projections posterior, showing basic
structure how it should function.
Attentional capacity and instruction:
A. Attention directed toward the initiation (and sometimes termination) or a
movement is critical
B. Automate elementary components of a skill prior to integrating additional
Putting Practice to the Test( Leavitt, 1979 Heath teacher and Tyke baseball
Wanted to learn what skills hockey players should learn first. Had to skate from blue
line to blue line
6 age groups (6,8,10,11,14,19)
1. Skating Only Geometric
2. Skating only and identifying geometric figures (distractor task) shapes are a
3. Skating and stickhandling distraction and
4. Skating, stickhandling and identifying figures
Skating speed was examining in each age group in each experimental takes away from
condition: the attention of
Dependent variable= skating speed
Skating impacted by stickhandling task up to 14 years of age
Thus, skating= attention demanding
There was increase of skating time as a function of task difficulty.
True for 6 year olds and 8 year olds.
As a function of age, difference between conditions went away.
10 year olds – 19 years olds, no difference between tasks.
Early in skill development, elements of movement that must become automated
should be emphasized prior to introducing new attention demanding tasks.
When training someone for a new skill, you should focus on the main task (ie.
Skating) without having secondary tasks (ie. Stickhandling). Allows developing a
level of automaticity.
If you’re going to structure a practice environment in relation to neuroscience, if
people are new to the skill should focus only on the primary skill.
Coordination and Attention musicians,
Bimanual coordination: simultaneous movement of the two hands no corpus
If flex and extend figure very quickly in antiphase (in opposite), if speed increases callosum
then will reach (to 3.5hz) will go into inphase (moving at same time (unison)).
1. Two hands seem to be linked together
2. Timing structure of the two hands is the same. We can adopt two different structures but as speed increase, the attentional center
cannot keep up, causing only one temporal structure being able to be
comprehended turns into inphase or simultaneous movement.
With no corpus callosum, do not exhibit this because information not being
sent to other hemisphere and keeping everything lateralized to one side.
The Gamma-V experiment:
1. With your left hand practice drawing 4-cm high gamma symbols continue
until you can do the task effectively
2. Next, draw 4 cm high letter “V”s with you right hand
3. Next, draw each figure at the same time using the individuals hands used for
4. Next, analyze your figures; what do they look like
5. Will extensive practice improve performance?
When drawing both simultaneously, the V’s and gammas will look similar
This is because of the timing of movement is disrupted
o Extremely difficult to adopt 2 distinct coordination patterns with
different temporal structures
In order to attend to both equally, they must have the same temporal
structure otherwise, they cannot attent to both at the same time
This is because of the Cerebellum (central timing mechanism)
The cerebellum is limited in attentional demand, can only adopt 1 timing
If extrend capacity cannot handle it so everything starts to move with the
same temporal pattern
Note: With training/practice you can drastically enhance your abitility to adopt 2
Musicians can develop their CNS to adopt multiple timing channels
Dr. Goodwill a disorder called faceblindling (Prosopagnosia)
Not being able to recognize faces
Can be born with it or can have a stroke that leads to it.
o Can be genetic as Dr. Goodwill has a sister who has it as well.
Dr. Goodwill was able to recognize the facial features of monkeys but not her own
The patient that Heath, Mr. T, met with had a stroke in the temporal in the Fusiform
Face Region (FFR). Patient cannot recognize his family, doctors etc. People who have
this type of deficit never regain face recognition.
Therapist wants to teach patient how to recognize the gate patterns of his family
(how they walk). Humans have developed in such a way that humans have an area
specialized in identifying other human’s faces. Memory System:
“ The capacity of individuals to retain and utilize information in various ways for
various periods of time”
How we store and process information
It has been inquired for 150 years of how we store and process this
Acquisition, retention, retrieval.
Comprised of three systems:
1. Short-term sensory store memory
2. Short- term memory (working memory)
3. Long term memory
Formulation of cognitive memory (mediated by distributed network of cortical
structures) is distinctly different from formulation of motor memory (mediated by
E.g. cognitive vs. motor
Short-term sensory store memory (STSS)
Really crude memory system
Peripheral component of memory system
Material stored briefly as it appears in the environment
4 Distinct characteristics:
1. Brief duration
2. Large capacity
o Like a snapshot of pictorial environment
o “Exact” or “metrical” orientation of visual world
4. Pre- categorical
o No conscious awareness of what information in the system.
o Cannot categorize if number or letters.
Not at the level of distinguishing yet
How can we determine the existence of a STSS?
Tests were very inconclusive.
Very important in the history of understand human memory system.
Originally patients were presented by matrix and told to say it very quickly.
Original reports, the researches used a whole report technique. The matrix was Important
flashed very quickly and told recall to remember anything they saw. These tests th
showed a 0% right. The patients said they couldn’t “get to it”. 28
They fixed up the experiment to a partial report technique. There was a flash of
matrix. There was a high medium and low tone. The high tone top row, the
medium middle row, the low tone bottom row. He waited different time delays
between flash and tone. (Concurrently. 150, 300, 400 etc.)
Results: When the tone was presented concurrently, there was 100% recall
accuracy. The STSS could reliable retain information for 150ms. Concluded that 300ms is the max amount of time that information can be reliably persistent in our
This experiment is the proof that the STSS does exist.
It also shows the veridical nature of the STSS
All shows the brief duration because stimuli does not last over 300ms.
o The matrix was flashed and then told what row they had to recall yet
they were still able to recall the row. This shows that they could
remember the order.
Spiff of the experiment done by Sperling: The matrix was flash but an ellipse was
flashed over the two letters. The recall percent was 0%. The ellipse essentially
erases the information stored in the STSS and essentially is stored in the same spot.
The STSS is like a chalkboard; you can only hold a certain minimal amount of
things. As soon as something new goes on it, the previous information is lost.
This is more proof of the veridical nature of STSS.
Another experiment by Sperling: Presented to his participants a matrix with letters
and numbers and told to recall the row with letters. Regardless of when they got the
cue, their recall ability percent was zero. The STSS cannot categorize stimuli and as
a result, ones ability to recall information is zero percent.
Proof the STSS is pre-categorical
All experiments by Sperling show the evidence and the proof of the processing of
information in the STSS.
Short Term Memory (STM):
Buffer between STSS and long-term memory
o Working memory that allows you to rehearse and consolidate
o Ultimately let it end up in your long-term memory.
1. Brief duration
o Not nearly as brief as SSTS
o Max. 30 seconds
2. Limited capacity (7 +/- bits of information)
o Unlike SSTS
o Important because of cell phone numbers.
o This is a conscious and somatic memory system. You are able to
recognize information in the STM and you know what category it
o If you cannot attend to it, it will not get into STM system
Attention plays a pivotal role, as it:
a. Allows information into STM
b. Maintains information within STM
Information entering STM is transcribed into an abstract representation
Memory and attention are strongly intertwined.
Paying attention can be seen as holding in memory
Attention is required for rehearsal The longer an item is attended to (held in memory), the higher the chance it will be
You can keep information in your short-term memory forever as long as you
If you fail to rehearse it, you will forget it.
If you rehearse something over and over again, at some point it will become
When it becomes consolidated it becomes part of your long term memory
Provides indication of temporal duration associated with STM= specific to
Specially designed to examine temporal duration of short-term memory.
In particular, unrehearsed information.
Participants are flashed a trigrams three letters.
They are asked to do a backwards-counting task.
This causes the participants to be unable to rehearse the information.
Results: The results typically show very low memory performance; diminished
recall accuracy as a function of delay. The reason is that rehearsal of the letters is
prevented by the counting task.
Curve linear decrease in recall accuracy as a result in length of the delay.
Longer delay, less accurate response.
About 3000 ms/3 seconds is the max amount of time that unrehearsed
information could be persistent as reliable information.
Trial Affect: In the control condition, more trials, the worse the recall accuracy.
In the experimental, trials 1-3 got worse as the trials went on but on the 4 they
were shown numbers and their results jumped up.
Proactive interference: Pervious information inhibits the ability to perceive new
When you change up a setting such as Brown-Peterson did on the fourth trial, it
gives a break to what you were doing.
Proactive vs. Retroactive Interference:
Proactive Interference- the forgetting of currently learned material produced by
interference from previously learned material
In 4 trial, increase in performance because of released proactive
interference: New semantic category (#s), no lonmger a build up of similar
Retroactive Interference: process in which an event learned during a retention
interval leads to forgetting of a previously learned event.
Could be applied to a student studying for a final exam. You are attempting
to consolidate a lot of information. The best way to study for the exam is by
studying different types of classes in a row. This allows different retroactive
interference aside from learning similar topics were they will overlap.
How well can we retain information for Memory Guided Movements?
Given auditory stimulus tell them to win, and then lights are shut off and told to do
the movement. Four line graphs:
1. Open Loop (vision alluded at auditory onset)
2. Brief delay 0 Second (at same time auditory tone goes off lost vision of
3. Brief delay 500ms (preview period, lose vision amount of time before cue
4. Brief delay 2000ms (preview period, lose vision amount of time before
cue to move)
Results: As progress from 1-4, errors increased.
There is no memory for vision that is as accurate as having vision during
Visual memory for movement is never as good as during movement.
How long one can retain proprioceptive information?
Robotic arm that guides participants arm to a target and then back to starting
Throughout, they did not have vision.
When the target was defined proprioceptivily, the target was able to be reached for
up to 2000ms.
Visual information decays very quickly and provides an unstable representation of
Location of response mediated via extrinsic coordinates
o Outside of the body
Proprioceptive information decays more slowly
Location of response mediated via intrinsic coordinates
o Reliable till up to 2000ms.
These two types of memories are distinct to what you are doing with the memory.
Differs from cognitive to motor.
Take home message:
Proprioceptive memory can persist accurately for up to 2000 msec in order to
support movement Sleep and Memory Consolidation:
State dependent memory: The state that you are in when you learn information, you
are better able to recall the information when in the same state.
Discovered by taking individuals by teaching people a list of words in the
water and another group on the pool deck. They were asked to recall the
information in both setting. He discovered that the participants remembered
the list of the words better in the area they learnt it, respectively.
Sleep prevents forgetting and makes memories resistant to pro- and retroactive
When people go to sleep right after learning something new, it allows them
for better recall the following day.
The information learned will not be susceptible to pro or retroactive
Especially if sleep closely follows learning
Sleep allows for hippocampus-neocortical dialogue and information transfer
With sleep, hippocampus and neocortex synchronize their activity.
When you sleep your temporal lobe (and other areas) speaks with the
They essentially “talk” and facilitate recall accuracy Sleep and Motor Types:
Slow-wave sleep (SWS)- represents very deep sleep. If someone was to wake you up
during SWS, they would be confused as to where they are majority of sleep
Predominates most of the sleep cycle
Important for consolidating explicit cognitive memories
Longest-lasting component of sleep
o If you wake up and don’t feel refreshed, then you didn’t get sufficient
Rand eye movement sleep (REM) predominates the second half of the sleep cycle.
Important for consolidating implicit motor memories
Studying for a practical exam
SWS important for consolidation explicit memories (ie. Studying for physics exam).
Science based exams
At least 8 hours of sleep
REM sleeps important for consolidation implicit memories (ie. Studying for practical
Something more motor based. (Somatically)
You can get enough REM sleep if you take a nap.
It is the SWS that allows for dialogue between the hippocampus and frontal lobe
REM = Motor memories
SWS= cognitive memory
EEG can be used to determine if a person is in REM or SWS sleep
There’s a principal known as variable of praxis. This is an important paradigm in
motor skills. You are practicing your short game on a driving range. You can practice
in two paradigms. 50 shots in a row to the same distance or 50 shots to different
distance. If you hit the same shot over and over again for 50 trials blocked trial. If
you hit different shots Random trial.
In blocked schedule: Errors will decrease as a function of trials
Performance gets better as trials increase.
In random schedule: Have some improvement as trial increase but not a lot of an
However, after 24-hour retention test (after waiting 24 hours), everyone had to
shoot to a distance, the distance the blocked individuals shot. Turns out, the random
group had a much better performance outcome than the block, even though the
block group practiced it.
This is because the random group couldn’t remember and actually had to think
about what they were doing. This leads to the information being more consolidated.
Variable practice leads to a long term memory benefit
Blocked practice leads to performance benefit.
Ebbinghaus was a German researcher interested in how much one can remember on
how to roll a cigar. Note on Graph:
1. Initial dramatic loss of
2. Plateau period= no
learning to build upon
the 40% that was
When told right after, they could do the last without much difficulty.
20 minutes later, 40% of acquired information has been lost
At 9 hours almost 60% of information lost.
Dramatic loss of information
From 2 days to 30 days there isn’t a large diminishment in memory lost.
You do not want to provide a learning environment where information can be lost.
Important to realize:
Forgetting complies very quickly after an initial learning experience
The 40% that persists will last 1-30 days with no appreciable loss of information
This info= fairly durable, it persists in memory system
There is currently no theory that explains why we forget
Forgetting seems to follow rather strict rules, but even these have not been fully
It is postulated that very well rehearsed knowledge will never be forgotten (Harry
Harry Barrack’s ‘permastore’:
You can never actually forget something you just cannot recall it. It is stored in your
brain just cannot retrieve it to consciousness.
Typical Memory recall curv