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Department
Kinesiology
Course
Kinesiology 1088A/B
Professor
Bob Larose
Semester
Fall

Description
October 19, 2011 Psychological Skills Training (PST) - Chapter 11 Definition: the systematic and consistent practice of mental and psychological skills - Psychological skill can be learned it mist be practiced and integrated into your training routine - Psychological factors account for most day to day fluctuations in performance Myths - psychological skills are “innate” (they can be learned) - Only for problem athletes - only effective for elite athletes - provide quick fix solutions - not useful Components of PST Programs 1.Education Phase - learn the nature and basis of the skill and understand how it influence performance 2.Acquisition Phase - structured training program to develop skills and techniques 3.Practice Phase - integrate skill development into practice and competitive settings ** Helps make the sporting experience fun and helps meet everyone’s needs Who? - Sport Psychology Consultant - Coach When? - Pre season or Off season - 3-6 month duration - Ongoing process integrated into practices Needs Assessment - Evaluate strengths and weaknesses - Oral interview and psych inventories (examples pg 282) - Performance profiling (examples pg 261) - outstanding individual in a sport and find characteristics they have and try and find them in yourself What?- Which skills to include - Scheduling - Evaluation and Follow Up Problems- Lack of conviction - Lack of time - Lack of knowledge - Lack of follow up 1. Psychological Skills (Initial Focus) - Personal qualities to be attained or developed (i.e. target behaviours) - Performance Skills - OptimalArousal (mental, physical) - Attention Control - Foundation Skills - self confidence - self esteem - volition Facilitative Skills - interpersonal relations - lifestyle management 2. Psychological Methods (Secondary Focus) - Procedures or techniques used to develop psychological SKILLS (vehicle used to attain skills) - Goal Setting - Relaxation - Imagery - Thought processes - Attributions Presence of Others as a Motivator Others= spectators or audience (observers) = coactors (others doing same task- rivals) A) Social Facilitation Theory (Zajonc, 1965) - The mere presence of others serves to increase arousal levels and cause a response to occur faster or more intensely 1. Increased arousal will increase the likelihood that an individual’s dominant response will occur 2.In simple, well learned skills, correct responses and improved performance occurs in the presence of others 3.In complex or newly learned skills, the dominant response may be incorrect (old or bad habits) and performance will be impaired in the presence of others (October 24) B) Evaluation Apprehension (Cottrell, 1972) - It is not just the presence of others that causes arousal. Rather, it is the expectation that those present will judge or evaluate the quality of the performance that increases arousal and influences performance effectiveness - we learn to associate other with praise/ blame or reward/ punish type of evaluations - audience can thus have either an arousing or a calming effect and produce resultant variation in performance or behavior (Drive Theory) C)Cognitive Approach (Borden, 1980) - Incorporates both of the above theories but takes it a step further - the performer is not simply a reactor who responds to an audience or to co actors - the performer is a Proactive participant who: • interprets the social situation (through perceptions and expectations) predicts the possible audience reactions • • alters behaviour to appeal to this reaction - previous experience, age, gender and personality will all influence the individuals subjective interpretation of the social situation - the size of the audience is not as important as how the individual interprets the size within the situation (numbers according to setting- hostile vs supportive) - expertise- interpret whether the crowd can accurately assess the quality of the performance - supportiveness- quality of social support from those present Home Field a) Advantage (Varca, 1980) • functional aggression (home) - more rebounds, blocks, steals • dysfunctional aggression (away) - more fouls, turnovers b) Disadvantage (Beaumeister, 1984) • increased self consciousness distracts from the automatic execution of skills (playoffs) Implications • there is very little that can be done to eliminate the stressful effects of the presence of others at sporting or exercise events. BUT: 1. Eliminate evaluative apprehension ad control arousal especially when learning new skills 2. Knowledge is power- educate and inform participants about: • inform the athletes about the common physiological reactions to stress so they can recognize them when they occur inform them about how audiences can influence performance • • inform them about the effects that stress and anxiety can have in performance 3. Perfect Practice (makes perfect) • overlearn skills, techniques, strategy • train by stimulating audience effects (taped or real crowds at practice) • pair high or low anxious athletes (veteran and rookie- buddies) 4. Specificity • arrange practice sessions (both skill and stress reaction situations) so they will approximate game conditions (last seconds or minutes, special teams) Arousal, Stress and Anxiety Arousal - blend of physiological and psychological activation - the intensity of motivation at an particular time - not constant, variable - activation or excitation ranging on a continuum from sleep to hyper intensity - caused by anticipation- of an event, a threat or worry Stress (Selyem 1956) - fight or flight - the result of a substantial imbalance between the physical and psychological demands of a task and one’s response capabilities under conditions where failure has important consequences - 4 stages • environmental demand • perception of demand (threat) • stress response (anxiety) • behavioural consequences (outcome/performance) Anxiety - Anegative emotional state characterized by nervousness, worry and apprehension - Has a cognitive (mental) component (worry, apprehension etc.) - Somatic (physiological) component (increased heart or breathing rate, sweating, nausea, “butterflies”, faint) Arousal Theories 1. Drive theory (Spense, 1966) - - performance is a function between habit and drive - Linear relationship between arousal and performance (as arousal increases so does performance) - Impact dependant on how well the task is learned (social facilitation theory) - There is no longer much support for this theory - NOTE: arousal, stress and anxiety are not always a bad thing 2. Inverted U Hypothesis - There are optimal levels of arousal - Once you reach optimal level, performance deteriorates if you continue to become more aroused or activated - Is a zone not a point (IZOF – Hanin) - Varies from person to person - Different tasks have different optimal levels 3. Catastrophe Theory (Hardy, 1996) - Somatic anxiety can have markedly different effects on performance depending on the cognitive anxiety (worry) being experienced - If worry is low – inverted U relationship - If worry is high – activation reaches an optimal threshold after which there is a dramatic or “catastrophic” decline in performance - Difficult to recover from once experienced 4. Reversal Theory (Apter & Kerr, 1984/85) - It is the cognitive interpretation of one’s arousal level impacts performance - High arousal = excitement or anxiety - Low arousal = relaxation or boredom - Can be pleasant or unpleasant - Individuals are subject to very rapid changes or reversals in their interpretation of the same event (i.e. parachuting) Best performances are when our interpretation is pleasant excitement Anxiety (Speilberger, 1966) (Need for Achievement vs Fear of Failure) - These are personality traits, independent of one another and stable over long periods of time - They are basic traits that will influence how arousal will affect a person in a specific situation (competitive sport) TraitAnxiety - Stable personality tendency to perceive situations as threatening when they really are not StateAnxiety - Achanging emotional state characterized by tension and apprehension and by autonomic nervous system reactions - Measure with inventories like SCAT (Sport CompetitionAnxiety Test – Martens, 1977) Scat - Assess the degree of the personality trait of anxiety - Assess the degree of stress before, during and after an event (state anxiety) - Assess the overall effect of anxiety during a competition - Findings: - no difference in trait or state anxiety levels between participants and non- participants, most-skilled vs least-skilled competitors - State anxiety gradually decreases with age and experience - High trait anxious individuals experience higher feelings of state anxiety prior to, during and after competitions - Traits anxiety levels have no influence on ultimate ability levels Sources of stress – individualized 1. Situational a) importance of the events or segments of it b) uncertainty of outcome of life events 2. Personal a) trait anxiety b) self-esteem c) social physique evaluation anxiety Other factors influencing one’s perception of stress in a competitive situation 1. Individual or team sport 2. Expectations for success 3. Winning vs losing or trying to do one’s best (outcome vs performance) (reference to Goal Setting) 4. Attributions to outcome – learned helplessness Fear of Success (Horner, 1985) - Withhold effort or involvement so don’t have to live up to levels attainted in previous best performance Effects ofAnxiety 1. Somatic – interferes with muscle co-ordination (tense) - simultaneous contraction or tension in antagonistic muscle groups 2. Psychological – distraction of attention - Think about the physical problems and not focus on task at hand - Narrowing of the visual field and elimination of relevant cues Anxiety results in a Negative Cycle or Spiral (more anxious, more detriment to performance; poorer performance, more anxiety) - Must break the cycle and control arousal (stress and anxiety) - Be in control but relaxed Players and coaches must learn various techniques to help them cope with the anxiety that arises from competition Coping – a dynamic process of constantly changing cognitive and behavioural efforts to manage specific internal or external demands that are viewed as exceeding one’s resources (Lazarus & Folkman, 1984) Can be: - Problem-focused – manage problem - Emotion-focused – regulating emotional responses Techniques used to cope with state anxiety: 1. Self-awareness – monitoring own tension levels – recognize and accept – (can be facilitative or debilitative) 2. Dissociation – change the focus of attention from the stressor to a more neutral situation Prevention of Chronic (long term) problems - Can’t sleep - Restless and fidgety - Pre-game nausea 1. Physiological (somatic techniques) - used to reduce physical tension levels Progressive Relaxation (Jacobsen, 1938) - Contraction and relaxation of major muscle groups in a sequential order (often use audio taped instructions) (p. 275) Biofeedback - Use of instrumentation to provide signals that indicate current and subsequent levels of physiological tension Heart rate, blood pressure, galvanic skin response etc. Breath control – more later 2. Cognitive Techniques - Used to reduce worry and negative thoughts Meditation (relaxation response) - Quiet the mind - Passive process – don’t force it - Use neutral key words or sounds (mantra) - Count exhalations – if lose count simply start over Autogenic training - Exercises designed to produce feelings of warmth and heaviness (p. 278) Hypnosis - Gradual progression into a trance-like state during which goal directed suggestions are given by leader Matching Hypothesis – match anxiety type with style of intervention (cognitive and somatic) October 31. 2011 Autogenic training: - exercises designed to produce feelings of warmth and heaviness Hypnosis - gradual progession into a trance like state during which goal directed suggestions are given by leader Matching Hypnosis- math anxiety type with style of intervention (cognitive and somatic) Multimodal Reduction Packages SMT- Stress Management Training - an integrated cognitive and somatic intervention strategy - accounts for situation, appraisal of situation, physiological response and actual behaviour SIT- Stress Inoculation Training - gradual exposure to and coping with increasingly stressful situations B)Dealing with Acute (more immediate) problems - immediately prior to or during a contest - help participant focus on the task at hand - negative thought stopping (positive thinking) a.Self talk- stop thinking negatively - substitute positive thoughts immediately - use cue words, images, music, etc. - a relatively new area of research Definition: - an internal dialogue through which a person interprets feelings and perceptions, regulates (changes) evaluations and convictions and gives self instructions and reinforcement 6 Dimensions of Self Talk a) self determined or assigned b)perspective- internal (voice in head) vs external (out loud) c) valence- positive vs negative d)direction- perceptions of motivating or demotivating e) intensity- impact on motivation f) frequency- how often is it used Performance can be influenced positively or negatively by some or all of the dimensions of b)Refocus- “parking” - recognize negative thought or problem, but set it aside during competition - realize can’t deal with it now but will come back to it later at a more appropriate time - physically “park” the thought (touch) and then come back and retouch to reacquire when ready to deal with it c)Breath Control - breathing is usually automatic and spontaneous (autonomic) BUT you can take over control of your breathing pattern and direct your breathing response - When anxiety or fright triggers a biological alarm response, the normal pattern of breathing changes- sharp inhale and hold breath rather than rhythmical exhale - you must first recognize that your breathing response has changed and then do something about it (self monitoring) Other immediate coping techniques - Attention Control Training - Centering - Mental Rehearsal (Imagery) On site relaxation a) Self monitoring of somatic tension level b)SMILE- takes the edge off tension - relax jaw, neck, hand c) Have fun- enjoy the experience - look forward to the activity d) Practice stressful situations (stimulate pressure) e) take your time, slow down the pace - maintain regular routines f) stay focus on/in present - leave last play behind- can’t change it - forget about “what happens if?” g) Have a Game Plan - easier decision making - scouting and spotting opponents Arousal Induction a) Consciously increase breathing rate b)Act energized c) Positive self talk d)Energizing music e) Arousing imagery f) Warm up/ workout November. 2 Goal Setting - Chapter 16 Goal= a target, standard or objective Goal Setting: a process of establishing a target or objective in specific behavioural terms Three main types of goals a)Outcome goals= win/lose b)Performance goals= how well play/ personal best (preferred due to greater personal control) c) Process goals= actions to execute in order to perform better What does goal setting do? Direct Effect: 1. Directs attention and action (choice) 2. Mobilizes energy (effort/ vigor) 3. Prolongs effort (persistence) 4. Encourages the development of strategy to attain goal(s) (action plan) Indirect Effect: - influences performance by working on psychological states (anxiety, confidence, satisfaction, attention, etc) Benefits of goal setting 1. Increases productivity and quality of work 2. Clarifies expectations 3. Relieves boredom 4. Proves personal recognition 5. Increases personal and task enjoyment Goals can be set for: a) training sessions (log book) b)practice sessions (areas to work on) c) competitive events d)team social events For each of these sessions or events, goals can be focused on: - conditioning - knowledge/ strategy - performance skills - attitude/ behaviour Goal setting is an extremely powerful technique for enhancing performance, but it must be implemented correctly - Meta analysis of goal setting literature has shown that goal setting has the strongest effects on performance and satisfaction of any motivational technique- 90% positive outcomes, avg 16% increase Warning: - don’t overload athletes with too many goals at one time- concentrate on a few of the most important ones. (more isn’t necessarily better) November 4th Principles of Goal Setting The most effective goals are ones that are: 1. Relatively difficult, challenging, but attainable (realistic to achieve) 2. Specific (action-oriented) and measurable (quantifiable) 3. Within or geared to the ability potential of the participants * The coach may need to provide a lot of input when inexperience participants set goals as they may not know the task demands or be able to assess their own skill level of potential 4. Public and formally committed to by the participant- written or verbal contract (in a positive format) 5. Flexible and adjustable (up or down) at all times 6. Have specific time frames and dates 7. Sequential and prioritized but limited in number 8. Long term goals progressively linked by intermediate and short term goals (8-10 week program most effective) 9. Accompanied by feedback (KR: Knowledge of Results) and possibly use with rewards 10. Supported by the coach who is a partner and facilitator in the goal setting process (commitment and ownership) - Educate significant others about feedback (win?) 11. Evaluate and reinforce goal attainment on effort before performance outcome 12. Do not tie the goals to one’s self worth (take personal risk/embarrassment out of goal attainment) 13. Develop goal achievement strategies (action plans) that are unique to each individual or group Success on goal setting seems to be independent of: - age - gender - educational level - personality disposition Follow up to goal setting 1. Identify appropriate evaluation procedures and evaluate on a regular/ frequent basis (manager chart stats during practices and games) 2. Encourage progress toward stated goals not just goal attainment 3. Regularly reevaluate and adjust goals and strategies to achieve them to make them more realistic (especially short term goals) Group Goal Setting - Attainment of specific standards of group (not individual) proficiency within a specified time or event - Practice - usually process oriented focusing on effort - Game- more focused on outcomes and implementation of specific skills and strategies As a leader: a) Involve all participants in the formulation of group goals (commitment) b)Strive for consensus- work for compromise- facilitate don’t dictate c) Decide on strategies to achieve goals including levels of effort, commitment, behavior and consequences d)Publicly post goals and update/ evaluate progress regularly (each week or after each game) SMARTS Goals S- Specific M- measurab;e A - Action oriented R- Realisitic/ achievable T Timely (Reasonable time) S- Self determined (in put) Incentive Motivation - the value attached to the possible outcomes (goals) available to participants in sports and physical activity - anticipate satisfaction and enjoyment from participation - expectancies confirmed (or not) through actual experience which influences continued participation (motivation) Researched topic in two ways: a) Identify main incentives that influence choice, persistence and effort of participation b)Identify the reasons why participants drop out of an activity General Findings 1. Each individual has his/her own unique reasons for participation 2. There are usually multiple motives operating at various strengths at any one time 3. The most dominant motives that have been identified are: - Affiliation (make or be with friends) - Excellence (skill development to the highest level) - Excitement/stress (thrill seeking) - Success (winning) and Status (recognition) - Fitness and energy release 4. Weaker but still present as a distinct motives are: - Independence (able to do on own) - Power (control over others) - Aggression (intimidation) - Influence of others (parents, peers, friends) 5. There are no differences observed in incentive motivation when analyzed for: - Age - Gender - Type of Sport - Culture *Note: Having fun is often cited as a motive but, it is suggested that the “fun” is really the result of other incentive motive fulfillment 6. The reason for discontinuing in an activity are also multiple and complex (i.e. failure to achieve satisfaction of one of more primary incentives is weighed against those that have been attained) 7. Other sports or activities start to have a greater interest than the one that you are currently involved in (conflict of interest) so you drop out (sport specific vs sport general dropouts) 8. The negative reasons for dropping out of an activity: - lack of ability (failure to improve skills) - lack of success (winning) - lack of playing time - lack of enjoyment - injury - boredom - lack of support from significant others - dislike of the coach of his/her style (win at all cost attitude) - pressure from parents 9. Negative reasons have more impact and are more important for younger or less experienced participants Implications - The coach or leader must deliberately increase the opportunities for at least the major incentives to be satisfied - To do so, he/she needs to engage in a process to attempt to discover what incentives each participant brings to the activity (IMI- incentive motivation index) a)Affiliation- place value on all roles - allow or plan social activities beyond the sport setting - encourage mutual support and team unity (cohesion) b)Excellence- help set realistic personal and group goals relative to ability levels - provide for as much skill development as possible (over learning by doing repeatedly in practice) c)Stress/excitement- provide variation and novelty in practice - give participants many challenging opportunities and expectations d) Status/success- don’t over emphasize winning but don’t ignore it’s importance - promote all roles, effort and performance e)Fitness- provide all participants with the opportunity to be active and involved - conditioning is a valuable part of every activity but don’t use as punishment November 9, 2011 Competition as a motivator - Competition is a strong motivational force imbedded in all sporting situations and in many recreational settings as well. However, the coach or leader has very little control over it. - Descriptors: a situational process that is either zero sum or non zero sum (reward structures_ and is either direct (against another individual) of indirect (against a standard i.e. rock climbing, racing) Cooperation - working together with others to accomplish a task or reach a common goal - Competition and cooperation can be at work at the same time on any team or group (i.e. cooperate with teammates vs opponent but compete with them for starting role or playing time) - Competition= fairness vs De competition= rival The Competition Process (Marten, 1975) - each individual experiences the competitive process differently and it may vary from one situation to another within the same person - the competitive process is primarily focused on social evaluation (comparison with others or standards) - linked stages often influenced by external feedback and rewards pg 106 1.Objective competitive situation - comparison criteria is known by others who can evaluate performance 2. Subjective competitive situation - how the person perceives the objective situation - 3 orientations a) competitiveness b)win oriented c) goal oriented 3.Response - approach/ avoid - behavioural - type of opponent Width - physiological- arousal - psychological- internal and external factors 4, Consequences - positive or negative - perception of consequences - effects subsequent events a)Attitudes- competitiveness is a learned behavior is influenced by the social environment and varies in intensity by: - culture - personality - age Direction b)Personality dispositions - Need for achievement- seek out challenges where success is in doubt - Fear of failure- avoidance of competitive situations c)Ability- the relationship between ability and the challenges of the task influence the competitive drive - competitiveness is strongest when participants are relatively equal in ability - if unequal in ability the activity becomes co operative learning until more equal in ability - competitiveness is strongest if participants have high ability - if low in ability and made to compete, effort, performance and interest are reduced d)Motives - Early success increases competitive dive while early failure decreases it and either circumstance can influence the participants motives for future competition - suggest more cooperative style games (rec leagues) at younger ages - wait till early teens for highly competitive games and teams - insure some initial success if possible (i.e. scheduling, controlled scrimmages, exhibition games etc) November 11/2011 Cooperation (Orlick, 1978 and Coakley, 1994) - reduce competitiveness and experiences of failure in sport for younger children - develop positive behaviours and attitudes about sport and reduce or eliminate hostility and conflict= emphasis on cooperative elements of particip
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