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Midterm 1.odt

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Western University
Kinesiology 1088A/B

Midterm 1Chapter 1Methods Ways of KnowingScientific MethodExperimentsSystematic Observation daily consistent basisSingle Case Study one individual to generate knowledge learn how people react in situationsShared Public Experience Ive done it youve done it What have we learned from itIntrospection thoughtsfeelings simply on reflecting what happened to youIntuition tacit knowledge seems to be logicalWays of Knowing in Sport PsychologyAny systematic study of sport psychology should include the following stages1Observation and Description what is it we are trying to learn Identify or define the essential characteristics 2Explanation and Analysis why Attempt to provide reason for the findings in stage 13Prediction what will be Use the knowledge obtained to predict future occurrences 4Control how can we What can we control to changeenhance the behaviours or performanceScientific MethodFounded on the concept of Objectivity lack of bias researchers are detached observers and manipulators of natureIt is a process or method of learning that uses a systematic control empirical and critical filtering of knowledge acquired through experience Six Steps of the Scientific Method1Formulation of a specific hypothesisDesign of the investigationAccumulation of data2Classification of dataDevelopment of generalizationsVerification of resultsThese steps provide scientists with a away of collecting reliable and valid internal data that can be used to develop generalizable theories and laws of human behaviourHowever this is a slow and conservative process that often lacks external validity practicalityAlternativeProfessional Practice KnowledgeHolistic and Experiential guided trial and error learning reflecting the complex interplay of many factorsIt is often innovative and immediately applicable but less reliable and susceptible to biasBiggest difference is the central and active role of the researcher in the process of knowing within the research rather than a neutral outside observerPreeminence of Tactic Knowledge passivea process of inference and intuition that integrates clues into meaningSubsidiary awareness of certain cluesspecific event from highschool generalized experience each have different memory we know more than we can tell it just seems logicalUse unique experience and knowledge to develop strategies Examples Case Studies n of 1 Clinical Reports Indepth interviews Introspective reports Participant Observations Shared experiencesYou must actively integrate scientific knowledge with professional experience and temper these with your own insights and intuition MotivationFrom LatinMovereto moveA theoretical construct not a directly observable phenomenonIs used to account for the Selection why are you doing this Intensity how much effort Persistence how long of behaviour learning or performance in any activityDefinition the Direction approachavoid and Intensity highlow of ones EffortChapter 4Presence of others as a MotivatorOthers spectators or audience observerscoactors others doing the same task rivalA Social Facilitation Theory Zajonc 1965The mere presence of others serves to increase arousal levels and cause a response to occur faster or more intensely1Increased arousal will increase the likelihood that an individuals dominant response will occur2In simple well learned skills correct responses and improved performance occurs in the presence of others3In complex or newly learned skills the dominant response may be incorrect old or bad habits and performance will be impaired in the presence of othersBeginning Learning Stage HarmfulIntermediate Learning Stage slightly harmful or beneficialHighest Learning Stage beneficial or no apparent effect B Evaluation Apprehension Cottrell 1972It is not just the presence of others that causes arousal Rather it is the expectation that those present will judge or evaluate the quality of the performance that increases arousal and influences performance effectiveness we learn to associate others with praiseblame or reward punish type of evaluationsan audience can thus have either an arousing or a calming effect and produce resultant variations in performance or behaviour Drive TheoryC Cognitive Approach Borden 1980Incorporates both of the above theories but takes it a step further The performer is not simply a reactor
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