Study Guides (238,069)
Canada (114,906)
Kinesiology (540)

Kin 1088A Midterm, Lectures 1-15.docx

15 Pages
Unlock Document

Western University
Kinesiology 1088A/B
Stephan Larose

Kinesiology 1088A: Mid-Term Notes Lecture #1 (September 13 ): What is Sport Psychology? Objectives of Sport and Exercise Psychology Sport and exercise psychology: scientific study of people and their behaviours in sport contexts, and the practical application of that knowledge. Three primary roles for sport psychologists: conducting researching, teaching, consulting. Two objectives in understanding sport psychology: a. Consider how psychological factors affect physical performance in sport and exercise b. How sport affects an individuals psychological development, health, well-being Two types of specialties o Clinical sport psychology: training in psychology, to detect and treat individuals with emotional disorders (eating disorders, depression, substance abuse) o Educational sport psychology: training in sport science, kin, understand the psychology of human movement, NOT licensed psychologists, not trained in emotional disorders Comprehensive Objective Understand (through description, explanation, prediction) the behaviour and performance of individuals in sport Am I in control of my mental capacity? Behaviour: a unique way to respond to all stimuli Performance: goal-directed behaviour for the purpose of short-term execution of a discrete task Orientations to sport and exercise psychology 1. Behavioural: behaviour of athletes determined by the environment depending on the sporting environment, it will affect how you perform 2. Psychophysiological: study impact of physiological responses to activity on behaviour 3. Cognitive behavioural: behaviour determined by ones interpretation of both environment and cognitions (thinking process, interpretation of how we feel about this environment) Professional Approaches: Clinical counselling eating disorders Performance enhancement Crisis intervention slump busting Consultation and program development Psychological assessment Prevention and treatment of injuries Kolbs Learning Cycle Experiential learning process 1. Concrete Experience 2. Reflective observation (think about what happened) 3. Abstract Conceptualization (make sense of it) 4. Active experimentation (try it out elsewhere) Methods/ Ways of Knowing Scientific method/ experiments Shared Public Experience Systematic observation Introspection (thought/ feelings) Single Case Study Intuition Lecture #2 (September 15 ): Ways of Knowing in Sport Psychology Systematic study of sport psychology should include: 1. Observation and description identify the essential characteristics 2. Explanation and Analysis attempt to find a reason for stage one 3. Prediction use knowledge obtained to predict what happens in the future 4. Control what can we control to change the behaviour? The Scientific Method Founded on the concept of objectivity Lack of bias: researchers are detached observers, and manipulators of nature It is a process or method of learning that uses systematic, controlled, empirical, and critical filtering of knowledge acquired through experience 1 Kinesiology 1088A: Mid-Term Notes 6 steps to the method: 1. Formulation of a specific hypothesis 4. Classification of data 2. Design investigation to test hypothesis 5. Development of generalizations 3. Accumulation of data (do experiment) 6. Verification of results This provides scientists with a way of collecting reliable and valid data to develop theories and laws however, a slow process that often lacks external validity (practicality) Study vs. Experiment Study: not changing the environment Experiment: the investigator manipulates the variables Reductionistic: too complex to study all the variables of a situation simultaneously, so the researcher may select isolated variables Internal validity: science favours the extent to which results of an investigation can be attributed to the treatment used Psychophysiological orientation: examine the physiological processes of the brain Social-psychological orientation: behaviour is determined by a complex interaction with the environment Cognitive-behavioural orientation: athletes thoughts Professional Practice Knowledge Holistic and experiential (guided trial-and-error learning) Innovative, immediately applicable (less reliable and susceptible to bias) The biggest difference is the central and active role of the researcher in the process of knowing (within the research rather than an outside observer) Tacit Knowledge A process of inference and intuition that integrates clues into meaning Subsidiary awareness of certain clues (know more than we can tell) Use unique experience and knowledge to develop strategies Examples: case studies, clinical reports, in-depth interviews, introspective reports, participant observations, shared experience You must actively integrate scientific knowledge with professional experience and temper these with your own insights! Science of Coaching The science of coaching recognizes when, how, and in what situations to individualize these general principles Sport psychology is more than the scientific or holistic study of human behaviour. It also involves the application of knowledge to enhance performance, behaviour, personal growth, and enjoyment of sport and physical activity th Lecture #3 (September 17 ): Motivation Motivation: a theoretical concept (not a directly observable phenomenon) used to account for the selection of activity, intensity of activity, and persistence o The direction (approach/ avoid) and intensity (high/low) of ones effort o Participant-oriented, situation-oriented, interaction of both Personal factors: needs, interest, goals, personality Social factors: facility, coach-leader style Some motivational factors can be easily changed while others are more difficult to influence Guidelines 1. Both the situation and personal traits motivate participants 2 Kinesiology 1088A: Mid-Term Notes 2. Important for a leader to understand what motivates a participant multiple motives, competing motives (de-motivational), shared/ unique motives 3. Structure or change the environment to enhance motivation 4. Critical role of the leader in influencing the motivation of the participants (coaching style) 5. Undesirable motives can be changed through behaviour modification techniques Token Rewards as Motivators Reward: things used to modify or manipulate behaviour material Reinforcement: personal interactions (verbal and non-verbal) Token rewards are also known as behaviour modification, operant conditioning, token economies, contingency management Contingency: relationship between a behaviour and its consequence Contingency management: the regulation of behaviour by using tokens to influence or alter outcomes (such as trophies, food, recognition, money) Undesirable behaviours can be eliminated through use of token rewards ex. Attendance board (public), group competition (intensity) Desirable behaviours can be enhanced through use of token rewards improve supportive and positive communication, such as point system and daily public posting of points earned Token rewards have a spill-over effect on non-target behaviours: o Satisfaction and enjoyment o Social interaction o Promptness and attendance o Statements of approval (less o Interest and attitudes complaining) o Conformance to rules Token rewards can be used to improve individual skills and/or task performance Guidelines of Token Rewards 1. Target only a couple behaviours/ skills and explain them in readily observable terms 2. State the contingencies/ outcomes readily/ clearly 3. Monitor the target behaviour consistently 4. Provide meaningful public feedback that focuses on self-improvement, not social comparison (will occur naturally) 5. Use a very simple reward system and be consistent in the application of the rewards 6. Think and start small, then expand 7. Consider individual differences when applying a program of behaviour modification *Gradually work to eliminate the token system as the desirable behaviours are entrenched* Lecture #4-5 (September 20 and 22 ): Reinforcement Reinforcement: any personal interaction that will increase the strength of a behaviour Positive reinforcement: introduction of something positive that increases/ maintains a response Negative reinforcement: removal of something noxious that increases/ maintains a response Punishment Punishment: Any interaction that decreases the strength of a behaviour Maximizing the use of punishment, if used: o Consistency: punish everyone the same for the same misdemeanour o Punish the behaviour, not the person o Allow input into what the punishment is o Do
More Less

Related notes for Kinesiology 1088A/B

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.