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Midterm

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Department
Kinesiology
Course
Kinesiology 1088A/B
Professor
Bob Larose
Semester
Fall

Description
Chapter One: Behavior and Performance: Behavior: determined by the environment unique way of responding to all stimuli (ie:pain) [in athletic/ exercise situation] Performance: goal directed behavior for purpose of short term execution of discrete task o ie: the actual effort the person to carry out task Orientations (to sport/exercise psych): 1. Behavioral: behavior of athletes determined by environment ie: home game 2. Psychophysiological: study impact of physiological responses to activity or behavior ie: breathing rate, stress, anxiety 3. Cognitive-behavioral: behavior determined by ones interpretation of both environment and cognitions (thoughts) how it affects it Professional Approaches: Clinical counselling; ie: trained dr., gymnast, eating disorder help using a psychologist, steriods Consultation and program development; sit with them= goals Prevention and treatment of injuries; cautious after injury and in place here it happened. Physical and mental injuries Performance enhancement; goal setting Crisis intervention ie: slumpbusty= batter misses all the time so mental coach educate about psycho skills and development but arent trained and helps them get out of the slumps Psych. assessment *medical clinical side and consultant side to sport psych. *mental preparation huge part to any phys. activity, can win game. ie: choke in golf if dont enter with blank mind Sport psych. vs. Consultant Sport psychology: Scientific study of pple engaged in sport and exercise activities and application of knowledge gained A) determine factors that affect PA, exercise and apply them 2 enhance performance B) how PA affects these factors Set of techniques/ skills ie: more practice, better you get Visual Auditory Experimental (go out and try it) *diff. pple, diff ways of learning Kolbs Learning Cycle: Concrete Experience -actually doing it -ie:hit the ball Active Experimentation Reflective Orient. -try it out elsewhere -think about what just do it again, replicate it happened (success, failures) Abstract Conceptualization -make sense of it -how did I do that? *ie: writing notes down, think about, do they make sense, take notes again for exam *Soccer Example* Concrete Experienceplayer takes part in a training match, attempting to score goals Reflective Observationplayer considers his/her performance, especially her/his scoring attempts Abstract Conceptualizationplayer talks to trainer who provides insight concerning scoring techniques Planning Active Experimentationplayer uses insights from the trainer as well as experience from the first match to plan for the next match Method/ Ways of knowing (how to generate theories): Scientific method/experiments ie:lab rats Systematic observation ie: McDonalds Single case study; see one person Shared public experiences; diff events then piece them together Introspections; thoughts/feelings Intuition: tacit knowledge (knowledge of pple but hard 2 express 2 others) o ie: chose A over B, both have same ability but B just feels right Ways of Knowing in Sport Psych: a) Any Systematic study of sp includes; Observation and description (what it is) Identify essential characteristic ie: how to hit ball- break it down into parts, or golf swing 1. Explanation; why we do it this way attempt to provide reasons for findings in stage one ie: back foot to front foot 2. Prediction (what will be) what must be maintained/ changed in order to succeed(using known knowledge) 3. Control; how to control same elements to perform at optimum performance peak what control to change behavior/ performance ie: athletes curses same person doing teaching b)Scientific Method:(since it is a science) Rely on own experience Founded on concept of objectivity= 1 way mirror, just observe whats going on Lack of bias b/c researchers are detached at the time to observe/manipulate It is a process/ method using; a. Systematic = going over the same rules, standardizing conditions, ie: childrens self esteem under the same conditions b. Empirical = observational c. Critical filtering = going through it d. Regardless of who does it = just follow rules e. Need many subjects, same setting, observe, generalize concept into theory 8 basis steps; 1. Hypothesis- what will happen when control/ manipulate environment 2. Design of investigation- how to go about doing it 3. Gather data- take app. info 4. Classify data- charts, graphs 5. Development of generalizations- made from experiment 6. Verification of results 7. Take another group, if same happens then generalizations are correct 8. Provide reliable and valid data Used to make theories, laws that are generalizable of human behaviour However; it is a slow and conservative process that lacks practicality/ external validity o ie: team plays in a few weeks= not enough time Professional Practice Knowledge (knowledge gained thru experience): Improve behavior as best as we can Take experience and try to generate info from that 1) Holistic = look at individual in totality o ie: see whole picture- sick= meds vs. see if allergies= holistic) 2) Experimental ( there, tried it, didnt work, do something else- guided trial and error learning reflecting complex factors) Innovative and immediately applicable but less reliable and susceptible to bias (influence how you observe/collect data) Doesnt guarantee results for different individuals Same event but experience different things o ie: same movie different pple likes Biggest diff: 1. Is central and active role of researcher in process of knowing; You (researcher) within research rather than outsider Observer Immediate, but can be biased Every1 can get diff. results Sources of Professional Practice Knowledge: Single case study- see one person and copy (logical that I might get the same results) Clinical reports = medical data o ie: bad shoes injured knees- report that need to change shoes In-depth interviews- ask people Introspective reports- ask people to generate own theories
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