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Sport Psych Lecture Notes (pre-midterm).docx

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Western University
Kinesiology 1088A/B
Bob Larose

INTRO TO SPORT & EXERCISE PSYCHOLOGY LECURE NOTES Lecture 1, 0909, Chapter 1 Bob LaRose, TH Rm4182 Exams based on lectures only Text: Foundation of Sport & Ex. Psych, 5 ed., Weinberg, R.S. & Gould, D. (2011) 6 biweekly labs (online), 3% each, drop lowest mark. ^drop box in 3M, undergrad Kin office. 15% Labs 35% Midterm 50% Final OBJECTIVES a. consider how psych factors affect individuals physical performance b. consider how participation in S & E affects individuals psych development & wellbeing Overall, obtain an understanding through description, explanation, prediction of the behaviour and performance of individuals or groups in S & E. Behaviour: unique way of responding to stimuli Performance: goal-directed behaviour for the purpose of short-term execution of a discrete task. ORIENTATIONS TO SPORT & EXERCISE PSYCH Behavioural: behaviour of athletes is determined by the environment, e.g. sun in eyes, effect of sweat on grip Psychophysiological: studies impact of physiological responses to activity on behaviour, e.g. feeling good after victory Cognitive-Behavioural: behaviour determined by ones interpretation of both environment and cognition, e.g. opinion of the game, self-talk, impact of outlook on results PROFESSIONAL APPROACHES Clinical Counselling -> eating disorder Crisis intervention -> slumpbusting (lost mojo, in a rut, losing streak, etc) Consultation & program development Psychological assessment -> determine thinking patterns Performance enhancement -> improve performance; think better, play better. Prevention & treatment of injuries -> assist player w/psych feedback after injury (rehab) Sport psych consultant / sport psychologist (medically qualified for psych. Assistance) -> knowledgeable about sport psych; can aid & recommend; NO doctoral education! WHAT IS SPORT PSYCH How does one go about studying human behaviour & performance in sport & exercise? KOLBS LEARNING CYCLE 1) Concrete (experience, actual - feeling) 2) Reflective observation [RO] (watching the events) 3) Abstract conceptualization [AC] (used to make sense of things - thinking) 4) Active experimentation [AE] (try it yourself; apply understanding, concepts - doing) METHODS OF LEARNING; focus on generating methods to IMPROVE PERFORMANCE Lecture 2, 0912, Chapter 1 Scientific method/experiments; mouse in a maze Systematic observation; provides inkling of how people behave, perform Single case study; individual level of detail, e.g. anger vs motivation, channelling of emotion Shared public experience Introspection (thoughts, feelings); self generated through reflection Intuition (tacit knowledge) WAYS OF KNOWING IN SPORT PSYCHOLOGY (generation of knowledge) Any systematic study of sport psych should include: Observation & description (what is it?) o Identify or define essential characteristics, i.e. weight transfer, joint rotation Explanation & analysis (why?) o Attempt to provide reason for observations Prediction (what will be) o Use knowledge obtained to predict future occurrences Control (how can we?) o Application of observations o What can we control to change/optimize behaviour or performance? 1. SCIENTIFIC METHOD a. Founded on concept of Objectivity (lack of bias); researchers are detached manipulators of nature) b. A process or method of learning that uses systematic, controlled, empirical and critical filtering of knowledge acquired through experience c. Control groups vs manipulation of environment; how to best affect performance? d. SIX STEPS OF THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD: i. Formulation of a specific hypothesis; something to be proved correct or not ii. Design of the investigation; creation of the experiment used to learn iii. Accumulation of data; used to predict future events iv. Classification of data; observation, organization v. Development of generalizations; under these conditions, this will occur vi. Verification of results; rinse, dry, repeat, test validity of results e. These steps provide scientists with a way of collecting reliable and valid (internal; within the bounds of the experiment) data from which generalizable theories and laws of human behaviour can be derived. HOWEVER, the process is slow and often lacks practicality (external validity; outside contrived conditions) 2. PROFESSIONAL PRACTICE KNOWLEDGE a. Holistic (whole) and experiential; guided trial-and-error learning, acknowledges the complexity of many different factors. Used to come up with knowledge based on how best to behave or respond. What do you learn from mistakes, experience? b. Often innovative and immediately applicable, but less reliable & susceptible to bias (subjectivity); perhaps not as universally applicable, but personally. c. This is where coaching comes in; guiding learning and speeding the process d. Biggest difference is the central and active role of the researcher in the process of learning; within the experiment, rather than removed from it. Researcher affects the results, creates bias 3. Pre-Eminence of TACIT KNOWLEDGE a. Process of inference and intuition; integrates cues, clues into meaning. Heres whats likely to happen. Does not have to be taught; instinctual. b. Subsidiary awareness of certain clues i. we know more than we can tell ii. feels right c. Use experience and knowledge to develop strategies i. When I did this, this happened; if I change this, this will change. d. EXAMPLES: i. Case studies ii. Clinical reports (based on prior experience; i.e. anorexia treatment based on past cases) iii. In-depth interviews to draw out intuitive knowledge; how did you do this? iv. Introspective reports; personal reflection v. Participant observations; what did you notice? Multiple perspectives Must actively integrate scientific knowledge with professional experience & temper the result with personal insights & theories; not either-or, but a combination. Not everything works for everyone, some things work better for some than others. Different strokes for different folks.
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