INTRO TO SPORT & EXERCISE PSYCHOLOGY
Lecture 1, 0909, Chapter 1
Bob LaRose, TH Rm4182
Exams based on lectures only
Text: Foundation of Sport & Ex. Psych, 5 ed., Weinberg, R.S. & Gould, D. (2011)
6 biweekly labs (online), 3% each, drop lowest mark.
^drop box in 3M, undergrad Kin office.
a. consider how psych factors affect individuals physical performance
b. consider how participation in S & E affects individuals psych development & wellbeing
Overall, obtain an understanding through description, explanation, prediction of the behaviour and
performance of individuals or groups in S & E. Behaviour: unique way of responding to stimuli
Performance: goal-directed behaviour for the purpose of short-term execution of a discrete task.
ORIENTATIONS TO SPORT & EXERCISE PSYCH
Behavioural: behaviour of athletes is determined by the environment, e.g. sun in eyes, effect of sweat
Psychophysiological: studies impact of physiological responses to activity on behaviour, e.g. feeling
good after victory
Cognitive-Behavioural: behaviour determined by ones interpretation of both environment and
cognition, e.g. opinion of the game, self-talk, impact of outlook on results
Clinical Counselling -> eating disorder
Crisis intervention -> slumpbusting (lost mojo, in a rut, losing streak, etc)
Consultation & program development
Psychological assessment -> determine thinking patterns
Performance enhancement -> improve performance; think better, play better.
Prevention & treatment of injuries -> assist player w/psych feedback after injury (rehab)
Sport psych consultant / sport psychologist (medically qualified for psych. Assistance) ->
knowledgeable about sport psych; can aid & recommend; NO doctoral education!
WHAT IS SPORT PSYCH
How does one go about studying human behaviour & performance in sport & exercise? KOLBS LEARNING CYCLE
1) Concrete (experience, actual - feeling)
2) Reflective observation [RO] (watching the events)
3) Abstract conceptualization [AC] (used to make sense of things - thinking)
4) Active experimentation [AE] (try it yourself; apply understanding, concepts - doing)
METHODS OF LEARNING; focus on generating methods to IMPROVE PERFORMANCE
Lecture 2, 0912, Chapter 1
Scientific method/experiments; mouse in a maze
Systematic observation; provides inkling of how people behave, perform
Single case study; individual level of detail, e.g. anger vs motivation, channelling of emotion
Shared public experience
Introspection (thoughts, feelings); self generated through reflection
Intuition (tacit knowledge)
WAYS OF KNOWING IN SPORT PSYCHOLOGY (generation of knowledge)
Any systematic study of sport psych should include:
Observation & description (what is it?)
o Identify or define essential characteristics, i.e. weight transfer, joint rotation
Explanation & analysis (why?)
o Attempt to provide reason for observations
Prediction (what will be)
o Use knowledge obtained to predict future occurrences
Control (how can we?)
o Application of observations
o What can we control to change/optimize behaviour or performance?
1. SCIENTIFIC METHOD
a. Founded on concept of Objectivity (lack of bias); researchers are detached manipulators
b. A process or method of learning that uses systematic, controlled, empirical and critical
filtering of knowledge acquired through experience
c. Control groups vs manipulation of environment; how to best affect performance?
d. SIX STEPS OF THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD:
i. Formulation of a specific hypothesis; something to be proved correct or not
ii. Design of the investigation; creation of the experiment used to learn iii. Accumulation of data; used to predict future events
iv. Classification of data; observation, organization
v. Development of generalizations; under these conditions, this will occur
vi. Verification of results; rinse, dry, repeat, test validity of results
e. These steps provide scientists with a way of collecting reliable and valid (internal; within
the bounds of the experiment) data from which generalizable theories and laws of
human behaviour can be derived.
HOWEVER, the process is slow and often lacks practicality (external validity; outside
2. PROFESSIONAL PRACTICE KNOWLEDGE
a. Holistic (whole) and experiential; guided trial-and-error learning, acknowledges the
complexity of many different factors. Used to come up with knowledge based on how
best to behave or respond. What do you learn from mistakes, experience?
b. Often innovative and immediately applicable, but less reliable & susceptible to bias
(subjectivity); perhaps not as universally applicable, but personally.
c. This is where coaching comes in; guiding learning and speeding the process
d. Biggest difference is the central and active role of the researcher in the process of
learning; within the experiment, rather than removed from it. Researcher affects the
results, creates bias
3. Pre-Eminence of TACIT KNOWLEDGE
a. Process of inference and intuition; integrates cues, clues into meaning. Heres whats
likely to happen. Does not have to be taught; instinctual.
b. Subsidiary awareness of certain clues
i. we know more than we can tell
ii. feels right
c. Use experience and knowledge to develop strategies
i. When I did this, this happened; if I change this, this will change.
i. Case studies
ii. Clinical reports (based on prior experience; i.e. anorexia treatment based on
iii. In-depth interviews to draw out intuitive knowledge; how did you do this?
iv. Introspective reports; personal reflection
v. Participant observations; what did you notice? Multiple perspectives
Must actively integrate scientific knowledge with professional experience & temper the
result with personal insights & theories; not either-or, but a combination. Not everything
works for everyone, some things work better for some than others. Different strokes for