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Sport Psych Lecture Notes (post-midterm).docx

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Kinesiology 1088A/B
Bob Larose

PSYSCHOLOGICAL SKILLS TRAINING (PST) ch11 The systematic and consistent practice of mental or psychological skills Psychological skills can be learned but must be practiced and integrated into your training routine Psychological factors account for most day to day fluctuations in performance Myths about Psychological Skills (these are false) Psychological skills are innate (cant be learned) Only for problem athletes Only effective for elite athletes Provide quick fix solutions Not useful hocus pocus Components of PST Programs (same as physical skills) 1. Education Phase Learn nature and basis of the skill and understand how it influences performance 2. Acquisition Phase Structured training program to develop skills and techniques 3. Practice Phase Integrate skill development into practice and competitive settings Overall, helps make the sporting experiences fun and meet everyones needs PST Program Who? o Sport psychology consultant o Coach When? o Pre-season or off-season o 3-6 month duration o Ongoing process integrated into practices Assessment o Evaluate strengths & weaknesses o Oral interview & psych inventories (p262) o Performance profiling (p261) [Comparing self to elite athlete] What? o Which skills to include? (--> strengths & weaknesses) o Scheduling (formal, informal, regular?) o Evaluation & follow-up Problems o Lack of conviction o Lack of time o Lack of knowledge o Lack of follow-up Psychological Skill Development is broken down into: 1. Psychological SKILLS (Primary Focus) to be developed Personal qualities to be attained or developed - target behaviours o Performance skills o Optimal arousal mental, physical o Attention control Foundation skills o Self-confidence o Volition, motivation o Self-esteem/self-awareness Facilitative skills o Interpersonal relations o Lifestyle management 2. Psychological METHODS (Secondary Focus) Procedures or techniques used to develop psychological SKILLS (vehicles to attain them) Such as o Goal setting o Relaxation o Imagery o Self-talk o Thought processes o Attributions PRESENCE OF OTHERS AS A MOTIVATOR ch 4 Others = spectators or audience (observers) Or coactors (others doing same task; rivals) 1. Social Facilitation Theory The mere presence of others serves to increase arousal levels and cause a response to occur faster or more intensely o Increased arousal levels will increase the likelihood that an individuals DOMINANT response will occur o In simple, well learned skills, correct responses and improved performance occurs in the presence of others o In complex or newly learned skills, the dominant response may be incorrect (old or bad habits) and performance will be impaired in the performance of others Effect of the Presence of Other People at Different Stages Beginning learning stage: Harmful Intermediate learning stage: Slightly harmful or beneficial Highest learning stage: Beneficial, or no apparent effect 2. Evaluation Apprehension Its not just the presence of others that causes arousal. Rather, it is the expectation that those present will judge or evaluate the quality of the performance that increases arousal and influences performance effectiveness Lecture 1024 An audience can thus have either an arousing or calming effect & produce resultant variations in performance or behaviour (Drive Theory) 3. Cognitive Approach a. Incorporates both of the above theories, takes it one step further b. The performer is not simply a reactor who responds to an audience or coactors c. The performer is a proactive participant who: i. Interprets the social situation (through perceptions & expectations), ii. Predicts possible audience reactions, and iii. Alters behaviour to appeal to this reaction iv. Previous experience, age, gender, & personality will all influence an individuals subjective interpretation of a social situation. d. The size of the audience is not as important as how the individual interprets the size within the situation (numbers according to setting hostile vs supportive) e. Expertise interpret whether the crowd can accurately assess the quality of performance (if so, their feedback matters more) f. Supportiveness quality of social support from those present Home Field Advantage Functional aggression (home); people are more aggressive i.e. more rebounds, blocks, steals Dysfunctional aggression (away) More fouls, turnover Disadvantage Increased self-consciousness distracts from automatic execution of skills (playoffs) IMPLICATIONS Very little can be done to eliminate the stressful effects of the presence of others at sporting or exercise events. However: Eliminate evaluative apprehension and control arousal especially when learning new skills Knowledge is power- educate & inform participants about: o Common physiological reactions to stress so they can recognize them when they occur o How audiences can influence performance (and how theyre expected to react) o The effects of stress & anxiety on performance 3. Perfect Practice (makes perfect) a. Over-learn skills, techniques, strategy b. Train by simulating audience effects (taped or real crowds at practice) c. Pair high & low anxious athletes (veteran & rookie, buddies) 4. Specificity a. Arrange practice sessions (both skills and stress reaction situations) so they will approximate game conditions (last seconds or minutes, special teams, etc) AROUSAL, STRESS & ANXIETY (not necessarily bad things) Arousal Blend of physiological & psychological information Intensity of motivation at any particular time Activation or excitation ranging on a continuum from sleep to hyper-intensity. Caused by anticipation of an event, a threat, or worry Stress Selye fight or flight The result of a substantial imbalance between the physical and psychological demands of a task and ones response capabilities under conditions when failure has important consequences 4 stages o Environmental demand (what does it take to be victorious?) o Perception of demand (what is the threat?) o Stress response (anxiety; can I beat the threat?) o Behavioural consequences (outcome/performance; does it matter?)
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