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Kin 1088 Bob La Rose 1st Test Psychology of Sport

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Kinesiology 1088A/B
Bob La Rose

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Midterm #1 Chapter 1 Methods/ Ways of Knowing Scientific Method/Experiments Systematic Observation- daily, consistent basis Single Case Study- one individual to generate knowledge, learn how people react in situations Shared Public Experience- I've done it, you've done it. What have we learned from it? Introspection (thoughts/feelings)- simply on reflecting what happened to you Intuition (tacit knowledge)- seems to be logical Ways of Knowing in Sport Psychology Any systematic study of sport psychology should include the following stages: 1. Observation and Description (what is it we are trying to learn) - Identify or define the essential characteristics 2. Explanation and Analysis (why?) - Attempt to provide reason for the findings in stage 1 3. Prediction (what will be) - Use the knowledge obtained to predict future occurrences 4. Control (how can we?) - What can we control to change/enhance the behaviours or performance Scientific Method Founded on the concept of Objectivity (lack of bias- researchers are detached observers and manipulators of nature) It is a process or method of learning that uses a systematic, control, empirical and critical filtering of knowledge acquired through experience. Six Steps of the Scientific Method: 1. Formulation of a specific hypothesis Design of the investigation Accumulation of data 2. Classification of data Development of generalizations Verification of results These steps provide scientists with a away of collecting reliable and valid (internal) data that can be used to develop generalizable theories and laws of human behaviour. However, this is a slow and conservative process that often lacks external validity (practicality) Alternative: Professional Practice Knowledge Holistic and Experiential (guided trial and error learning reflecting the complex interplay of many factors) It is often innovative and immediately applicable but less reliable and susceptible to bias Biggest difference is the central and active role of the researcher in the process of knowing (within the research rather than a neutral, outside observer) Pre-eminence of Tactic Knowledge (passive) a process of inference and intuition that integrates clues into meaning Subsidiary awareness of certain clues - specific event from highschool, generalized experience, each have different memory - we know more than we can tell it just seems logical Use unique experience and knowledge to develop strategies Examples: Case Studies (n of 1), Clinical Reports, In-depth interviews, Introspective reports, Participant Observations, Shared experiences You must actively integrate scientific knowledge with professional experience and temper these with your own insights and intuition Motivation From Latin - Movere = to move Atheoretical construct (not a directly observable phenomenon) Is used to account for the: Selection (why are you doing this), Intensity (how much effort), Persistence (how long) of behaviour, learning or performance in any activity. Definition: the Direction (approach/avoid) and Intensity (high/low) of ones Effort. Chapter 4 Presence of others as a Motivator Others= spectators or audience (observers) = coactors (others doing the same task- rival) A) Social Facilitation Theory (Zajonc, 1965) The mere presence of others serves to increase arousal levels and cause a response to occur faster or more intensely. 1. Increased arousal will increase the likelihood that an individuals dominant response will occur 2. In simple, well learned skills, correct responses and improved performance occurs in the presence of others 3. In complex or newly learned skills, the dominant response may be incorrect (old or bad habits) and performance will be impaired in the presence of others Beginning Learning Stage- Harmful Intermediate Learning Stage- slightly harmful or beneficial Highest Learning Stage- beneficial or no apparent effect B) Evaluation Apprehension (Cottrell, 1972) It is not just the presence of others that causes arousal. Rather, it is the expectation that those present will judge or evaluate the quality of the performance that increases arousal and influences performance effectiveness. we learn to associate others with praise/blame or reward/ punish type of evaluations an audience can thus have either an arousing or a calming effect and produce resultant variations in performance or behaviour (Drive Theory) C) CognitiveApproach (Borden, 1980) Incorporates both of the above theories but takes it a step further. The performer is not simply a reactor who responds to an audience or to coactors. The performer is a proactive participant who: interprets the social situation (through perceptions and expectations) predicts the possible audience reactions alters behaviour to appeal to this reaction Previous experience, age, gender and personality will all influence the individuals objective interpretation of the social situation The size of the audience is not as important as how the individual interprets the size within the situation (# according to setting-hostile vs supportive) Expertise- interpret whether the crowd can accurately assess the quality of the performance Supportiveness- quality of the social support from those present Home Field a) Advantage (Varca, 1980) functional aggression (home) = more rebounds, blocks, steals dysfunctional aggression (away) = more fouls, turnovers b) Disadvantage (Beaumeister, 19840 increased self-consciousness distracts from the automatic execution of skills (playoffs) Implications There is very little that can be done to eliminate the stressful effects of the presence of others at sporting or exercise events, but: 1. Eliminate evaluative apprehension and control arousal especially when learning new skills 2. Knowledge is power- educate and inform participants about: a) inform the athletes about the common physiological reactions to stress so they can recognize them when they occur b) inform them about how audiences can influence performance c) inform them about the effects that stress and anxiety can have on performance 3. Perfect Practice (makes perfect) a) overlearn skills, techniques, strategy b) train by stimulating audience effects (taped or real crowds at practice) c) pair high and low anxious athletes (veteran and rookie- buddies) 4. Specificity- arrange practice sessions (both skill and stress reaction situations) so they will approximate game conditions (last seconds or minutes; special teams) Chapter 6 Developing and Maintaining Procedures for developing and maintaining specific performance or behaviours: 1. Shaping- reinforcement of successively closer approximations of the terminal (final) performance or behaviour How to shape: a) determine present ability level b) identify steps or stages of the skill to be learned c) identify appropriate reinforcers d) clarify the terminal level of skill, performance, or behaviour e) start with the most important stages that can be accomplished successfully and provide appropriate positive reinforcement (layup-ball in basket) f) selectively reinforce behaviour or skill execution that is increasingly similar to the terminal skill/behaviour g) then begin to fill in the missing parts of the identified skill- not a sequential process (riding a bicycle, dont immediately learn how to stop, balance first) 2. Chaining- successive reinforcement of the component parts or segments of a skill or behaviour (beginning and an end, teach in order by stages, whole-part-whole) How to chain behaviours or skills: a) break skill down into linked segments b) teach and reinforce each segment in turn c) work on one segment until it is at or near the terminal level of execution d) can work from the begging or end of the skill 3. Reinforcement Schedules- the frequency of reinforcement schedules a) Constant Schedule- reinforce every occurrence of the desired behaviour /skill, used in new or initial training b) Intermittent Schedules- 1. Ratio- given after a set number of correct responses, every 3 times 2. Interval- given after a specific amount of time has elapsed, 2 mins 3. Duration- given during a set period of time, certain drills or time Intrinsic Interest as a Motivators Intrinsic Motivation- desire to participate in an activity or task for its' own sake- enjoyment, excitement challenge Motivation From Latin - Movere = to move Definition: the Direction (approach/avoid) and Intensity (high/low) of ones Effort. Atheoretical construct (not a directly observable phenomenon) Is used to account for the: Selection (why are you doing this), Intensity (how much effort), Persistence (how long) of behaviour, learning or performance in any activity. Participant Oriented Situation Oriented Interaction of both Some motivational factors can be easily change/manipulated: Goal Setting, Reinforcement, Attribution, Self-confidence Difficult to Influence: Presence of others (constant),Anxiety (cant change over night), Focus of attention (focal strengths, distractions) Guidelines: 1. Both the situati
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