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Kinesiology 2236A/B
Dave Humphreys

INTRODUCTION TO ATHLETIC INJURIESLecture 1 Injury PreventionImportant to minimize activity related injuriesBest way to manage and care for athletic injuries is to prevent them from occurring Injuries can be characterized by 1 Primaryprevention How do we avoid the situation a Focus on 1 of 3 dimensions i Athlete technique neuromuscular function and conditioning ii Surrounding floorsurface friction and the rules of the game iii Equipment shoe friction protective properties 2 Secondarywhat we do to protect the athlete should a potentially injurious situation arises a Includes sports equipment like release bindings helmet technology shin pads for soccerhockey taping or bracing b Includes training proper falling technique conditioning to strengthen structures so they can tolerate increased force 3 Tertiaryreducing the consequences of injuries a May include things like emergency medical coverage first aid equipment and rehabilitation Haddons MatrixPrimaryPreCrash SecondaryCrash TertiaryPost Crash Athlete Technique and Training status falling Rehabilitation by Neuromuscular techniques reporting injury function Surrounding Floor friction and Safety nets Emergency medical playing rules coverage stEquipment Shoe friction Tape or brace 1 aid equipment and bindings protective ambulance equipment Lecture 2 Protective EquipmentMany factors are important in the prevention of athletic injuries 1 Designprevent injury and to protect injured part from further injuries 2 Proper fit 3 Proper selection Protective equipment o Be simple to fit and maintain o Be durable and reliable o Not be extremely expensive o Have minimal function interference o It should prevent injury and protect the athlete Four principles 1 Deflectionturning aside or setting a force offcourse a Ex Helmet which are hard round and smooth b Ridges are key for this goalies mask c Sliding deflection for hockey and football helmets2 Dissipationdisperse force over a large surface area through layers using various material a Ex shoulder pads 3 Deformationchange in shape or structure a Ex cantilever pads used in football b Material may blow apart at high force i Ex Bike helmet hitting the ground 4 Absorptionclosed cell foam absorbs greatest impact and can take a lot of hits without recoil or echo recover quickly a Materials i Feltmatted wool fibres which has less of a tendency to shift or move over skin while it absorbs bodily fluids must be replaced dailyii Foam 1 Open Cell a Like a sponge b Has low resilience doesnt bounce back c Used to pad bony prominences or protect the skin from the hard edges of some equipment d Decreased densitymore absorption at lower force 2 Closed Cell a Primarily used for protection since air cannot pass through b High resilience materials can return to its original shape c Offers less cushioning at low levels of impact d Not as comfortable close to the skin e Can be used for a sport where an athlete gets bumped multiple times at relatively high force f Increased densitygreater resistance at high force Fitting Equipment o Equipment should be firm but comfortable o Should mold to the body part while allowing for proper functioning o Must allow for quick removal o Fit can be altered by temperature hair length deterioration of internal padding loss of air air bladder helmet Fitting Helmets o Should be done with wet hair to emulate sweat produced during the game o Should sit 12 finger widths above the eyebrow o Must cover occiput and entire skull o Mask should be 23 finger widths from nose for good vision o Strap should be snug to the chin2 point vs 4 point in football helmets Shoulder Pads o Inner padding should cover AC joint and cup the deltoid o Neck must be unrestrictive o Lacing should be snug but unrestrictive Modifying Equipment o Any modification should be done according to the manufacturers specifications and should not alter the fit of the original equipment o Modification should not increase the stress or damage the original material o No drilling cutting slicingo Even something like a sticker can damage equipment glue can eat away the plastic Sport Specific Equipment Analysis o Need to look at the biomechanics of the body individual activity level and specific protection vs Performance demands o What are you trying to protect against o People High masslow velocity o Projectiles Low masshigh velocity Analysis o Outer surface shell and the inner surface liner o Method of attachment strap belt ties o Sport specific design o Consider fit quality certification CSA NOSAE ventilation temperature and WearrecertificationFootball o Helmethigh masslow velocity to protect us from other peopleHard smooth outer shell with absorbing inner linersWill have a different mask depending on position2 point chin strapdoesnt move o Ex QBs wear 2 point chin straps4 point chin strapprevents the helmet from tipping forward and backwards o Shoulder Pads Protects the shoulders and limits force to the lateral acromionProtects against front and lateral tacklesShell of hard smooth plastic deflectionLayers of soft padding under outer shell is held away from the AC like a cantilever dissipatedeformabsorb
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