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Biomechanics 2241 February Midterm.docx

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Kinesiology 2241A/B
Bob Vigars

Lecture 1: Definitions  Kinetics= forces that cause movement o Examples buoyancy, centripetal, friction, pressure, gravity …etc  Kinematics = describing that movement o Described in m/sec, degrees/sec o Acceleration is a change in velocity or a change in direction o Displacement is described in metres or degrees o Momentum is M = mv Efficient vs. Effective  An efficient movement is one where there is minimal energy expenditure, which is useful in endurance sports. The performer is able to perform faster, with less energy expended  An effective movement is not concerned with efficiency- the only concern is making the most appropriate movements to achieve the mechanical purpose (MP), and obtain your Overall Performance Objective (OPO) o In other words, you just move appropriately for the situation to get what/where you want Lecture 2:  Vertebral column (VC) o 7 cervical o 12 thoracic o 5 lumbar o 4 coccyx o Sacrum  Functions of the skeleton: o Protect vital organs o Support soft tissues o Manufacture RBCs o Reservoir for minerals o Attachments for muscles o Levers and pulleys to create muscle torques  Physical stress on bones: o Compression o Tension o Torsion o Shear  Properties of tendons/ ligaments o Elasticity: ability to stretch and return to its original length o Elastic limit: point of no return to original length o Plasticity: tissue is stretched beyond the elastic limit (so it stays lengthened)  How does an articulation stay stable? o Its bone arrangement (strong when one bone ‘fits’ as in a ball-and-socket) o Ligament arrangement (the quality of the ligaments, how many there are) o Muscle arrangement  Factors affecting an articulation’s range of motion (ROM) o Shape of articulation (type of joint) o Tightness of muscles and ligaments (flexibility) o Size of adjacent tissue (anything getting in the way) o Restrictive clothing/ equipment during play Lecture 3:  Spatial frame of reference: x = forward/backward, y = left/right, z = up/down  Linear vs. rotary motion o Linear = motion in a line path  Rectilinear (straight path), example a dropping ball. This is very rare in sport, as it is only rectilinear when it is straight down  Curvilinear: a straight path from start to finish, but it goes in an arc. Projectile motion where it curves, but lands in front in a straight line o Rotary = motion occurring in relation to a fixed point. The fixed point is the axis of rotation, and the radius of rotation is the distance from any point to the axis (for example if I am rotating my arm about my shoulder, the shoulder joint is the fixed point, and the radius could be the distance from my shoulder to elbow, shoulder to wrist, or even shoulder to fingertips) Planes and Axes  Plane: a flat surface that divides body or segment  Axis: an axle about which a body or segment rotates, parallel to the plane o Movement occurs IN A PLANE and ABOUT AN AXIS  Sagittal Plane Movements about M-L axis  extension and flexion o Flexion, hyperflexion, transverse flexion, dorsiflexion, plantar flexion o Extension , hyperextension, transverse extension o The plane goes through my midline, splitting my body into left/right, and the axis goes from my left to my right  Frontal Plane Movements about A-P axis  abduction and adduction o Abduction, transverse abduction o Adduction, transverse adduction o Depression, elevation o Lateral flexion, radial flexion, ulnar flexion o The plane goes through my left and right, splitting my body into front and back. The axis goes through my centre  Transverse Plane Movements about longitudinal axis  spinning o Lateral rotation, medial rotation, transverse rotation o Inversion, eversion o Pronation, supination o Protraction, retraction o The plane splits my body into top and bottom. The axis goes right through my centre, vertically  Anthropometrics: size, shape, proportions  deals with the anatomy of your body o Ecto = thin o Endo = fat o Meso = thick/ muscular Lecture 4: Muscle Properties  5 main properties: o Irritability (stimulation, example shocking a nerve end) o Conductivity (wave, goes through the full muscle) o Contractility (tension) o Distensibility (stretching) o Elasticity (recoil ability)  Fibre arrangements: o Fusiform = longitudinal o Pennate = oblique angle. For example, in the muscles of the forearm, many are at an angle (from elbow to radial attachment). Think about efficiency, these forearm muscles aren’t as efficient as a fusiform bicep to flex the elbow joint  Muscle and articulation: o Uniarticulate = crosses 1 joint o Biarticulate = crosses 2 joints o Multiarticulate = crosses more than 2 jo
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