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Biomechanics review.docx

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Western University
Kinesiology 2241A/B

Biomechanics review Axial skeleton Appendicular skeleton Functions of the skeleton Physical stress on bones Forces acting on players Harnesses, ropes and pads Properties of tendons and ligaments (PEE) Ligament comprised mostly of? (Percent) Limited _____ in ligaments Factors affecting stability of a joint Factors affecting range of motion Spatial frame of reference - X - Y - Z Linear motion (2) Rotary motion Plane Axis Sagittal plane / sagittal axis Movement about the sagittal plane (start from bottom to top) Frontal plane / Frontal axis Transverse plane / transverse axis Anthropometrics (ECTO, ENDO, MESO) Muscle Properties (DECCI) Power Fiber Arrangements Uni/bi/multi – articulate muscle articulation Active Insufficiency Passive insufficiency Reciprocal innervation Muscle tension types (2) Factors affecting muscle force (9) list and describe how each affects muscle force Proprioceptors Golgi tendon organ Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation Muscle spindles Force defined Kinetics - Buoyancy - Centripetal - Elastic - Friction Properties of a force (4) Mass Weight Volume Density Vectors Action/Reaction forces Internal Forces External Forces Motive forces Resistive forces Pressure (equation*) Friction force Centripetal Force (equation*) Elastic force Buoyancy Force Kinds of energy (3) Type s of mechanical energy (3) Torque When can the muscle be a resistive torque? Muscle torques - Magnitude - Direction - Line of action - Point of application Force measured in ___? Force arm measured in____? Torque measured in ___? Length of the vector is the _______? Orientation of the vector is the _____? To get a straight-line vector for angular motion you use the ______? Explain. Center of buoyancy Equilibrium Static equilibrium Dynamic equilibrium Balance Linear stability Rotary stability States of rotary equilibrium (3) Base of support Balance Factors (5) The common athletic stance Pushing/pulling loads Is it better to push or pull load when your C of G is higher than the load? Why? Functions of machines (4) Components of levers (3) FA motive/Resistive *** CHAPTER 4 – FIGURE 4.3 Resultant torque vector (2 components) When the muscle is pulling at less than 90 degrees it has ______ properties pulling it _______ toward the joint. More than 90 degrees, the muscle has a ________ component. When exactly 90 degrees, strong pull 100% _______. st 1 class lever nd 2 class lever rd 3 class lever Wheel and axle??? ** Vertebral muscular stability - Abdominal muscle’s on ventral side - Erector spinae muscles on dorsal side Contralateral trunk flexion Ipsilateral trunk flexion Lordosis - Due to? - Found in? - Treatment Functional problems Structural problems Scoliosis - Causes? - Treatment? Kyphosis
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