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Exercise Psych (final).docx

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Western University
Kinesiology 2276F/G

Exercise psychology final Imagery interventions o purpose  determine if imagery affects self-efficacy  determine if self-efficacy affects behaviour  determine if individuals types of self-efficacy can be targeted with imagery o results  imagery -> self-efficacy -> behaviours  true for 1) challenging or 2) new behaviours SE intervention o participants  6 groups ˃ control group − task SE − coping SE − scheduling SE ˃ imagery group − task SE − coping SE − scheduling SE o intervention  imagery group – imagery sessions for 1 week before exercise  control group – information about healthy nutrition  cardiovascular program ˃ week 1-4 − 50-60% HRR ˃ week 5-8 − 55-65% HRR o results  imagery intervention leads to behavioural changes  specific imagery leads to improving specific self-efficacy  general flattening out of the curves by week 6-12 “HRR – heart rate reserve – speed of heart beats per unit of time” Exercise contract o start/end date o what their goal is o how they are going to attain goal o rewards Smart goals o specific o measureable o adjustable o realistic o time-based Goal setting process Develop strategies Update Accumulate goal data from daily progress Use data to evaluate progress towards goal “Self-monitor one’s level of exercise intensity to prevent overexertion” Relapse o failure to resume regular exercise after lapses in activity Abstinence violation effect o lapse causes the exerciser to abandon entire exercise program Relapse prevention o identify thoughts, feelings and situations that will cause a lapse o change your cognitions about relapse  realize lapses are inevitable and normal  exercise is NOT “all or nothing” Imagery o experience that mimics real experience 1) Behavioural interventions o pros  most effective way to increase PA  effective for both genders  effective in a variety of settings o cons  well-trained counselors are needed  limited number of activity counselors VS numbers of inactive people 2) Social support interventions o pros  leads to increased PA and fitness  can be combined with other interventions o cons  impossible to know which component of the intervention was responsible for improvement  success depends on cooperation of group members Canadian childhood obesity o tripled since 1980 o ¼ of population are overweight Canadian childhood PA o 93% are not meeting guidelines o AHKC gives Canadian children an “F” PA for children o 1) structured PA o 2) unstructured PA  active play ˃ within child’s free time ˃ contribution to children’s social, emotional and cognitive development “At least ½ of PA should come from active play” “Active play is a practical way to achieve recommended guidelines” Active play imagery experiment o purpose  understand the content of children’s mental images  determine if active play imagery supports the self-determination theory o intervention  told children to imagine active play activities o results  children with high competence ˃ imagined themselves being good at their active play activities  children with high relatedness ˃ imagined friends, family and others  children with high autonomy ˃ imagined enjoyable and frequent activities Active play imagery questionnaire o fun  enjoyment  interest o capability  perceived competence  self-efficacy o social  playing with friends and others Social Fun Capability Relatedness Autonomy Competence Active play imagery intervention o purpose  use guided imagery to increase children’s active play o measure  motivation  basic needs for children  active play ˃ pedometers ˃ PA questionnaire  active play imagery o intervention  phone base intervention  listen to an imagery script o result  imagery groups – higher number of steps ˃ increases slightly with time  control groups – lower number of steps ˃ decreases with time o future directions  longer intervention  more detailed and individualized imagery scripts  new measurements for active play Chapter 6 1) Modifying school phys. Ed. o pros  increase PA in young people o cons  not known if this participation leads to life-long patterns of active living  difficult to convince school districts and parents of importance of devoting time/resources to enhancing PE programs (changing) “Lots of phys. ed. classes taught by non-phys. ed. teachers” “Phys. Ed. teachers shoulder decrease instruction time and increase moderate-vigorous activity” 2) Increasing access to PA facilities o pros  25% increase in proportion of people who exercise at least 3 times/week o cons  time and resource-consuming  opportunities to exercise doesn’t mean it will be effective Examples of increasing PA facility access o build/enhance exercise facilities walking trails, pools, gyms o make local parks and playgrounds safer o eliminate financial barriers and physical obstructions Chapter 7 (Personality) PA -> Personality Or Personality -> PA? Personality o unique o underlying psychological structures o stable o shape person’s actions and reactions to environment Role-related behaviours o variable o contexts we are in influences our daily behaviour o most easily changed Constitutional theory o body types predispose behavioural consistency  ectomorph ˃ tense, introverted, inhibited  mesomorph ˃ adventurous, dominant, aggressive, risk-taking  endomorph ˃ affectionate, sociable, relaxed Person-situation debate o personality approach  stable  enduring attributes  consistent responses over situations o situation approach  individual’s reaction to environment determines behaviour o interactionist  individual + situation = behaviour “Traits – motivation system that increase adaptation to positive or negative stimuli” Eysenck’s personality theory o 3 trait dimensions within a continuum  extroversion – introversion  neuroticism – stability  psychoticism – superego “Few people possess traits that reflect the far ends of the Eysenck’s dimensions” “Accurate predictions in exercise for extroversion and neuroticism” “Extroversion – exercise -> increase stimulation -> adherence to exercise” “Neuroticism – exercise -> contribute to a stable less neurotic personality” “Personality can change as a result of regular PA – reduce negative factors (neuroticism) and enhance positive factors (extroversion)” Cattell’s personality theory o 16 personality questionnaire o high lvs of PA  low anxiety and neuroticism  greater emotional stability  relaxation “People with lower lvs of anxiety and neuroticism respond well to intense training” “Cattell’s personality theory has a difficulty in interpreting complicated findings” Big five personality theory o conscientiousness  + self-reported exercise  + adaptive exercise patterns  + advanced exercise stages o agreeableness  – exercise dependence o neuroticism  – exercise adherence  – self-reported exercise  – adaptive exercise patterns  + exercise dependence o openness to experience  N/A o extraversion-introversion  + self-reported exercise  + adaptive exercise patterns  + advanced exercise stages  + exercise dependence “No relationship between big five traits and stressor type” Remco results o high stress intensity  neuroticism increased  agreeableness decreased o low perceived control  neuroticism increased  conscientiousness decreased “Neuroticism is an unsuitable dimension for competitive sport” Sex role orientation o masculinity  instrumental personality ˃ risk-taking ˃ independent ˃ aggressive ˃ competitive o femininity  expressive personality ˃ understanding ˃ sympathetic ˃ affectionate ˃ compassionate o androgynous  high lvs of both M and F “Cross gender activities are generally avoided by gender-typed individuals because of psychological discomfort” Type A personality o high-strung o prone to coronary heart disease  due to anger/hostility “Exercise reduces anger and hostility” Hardiness o control over events o commitment for events o perceive life events as opportunities and challenges “Correlation between hardiness and healthy behaviours” Hardiness -> healthy behaviours Or Healthy behaviours -> Hardiness? Psychobiological model o psychological factors  self-motivation o biological factors  body composition  body mass “Negative correlation between body fat/mass and exercise adherence” “Positive correlation between self-motivation and exercise adherence” “Subsequent research hasn’t supported the psychobiological model very well” Intervention for emotional/neurotic individuals o begin a regular exercise program o no difference from anyone else o aerobic activity  influences personality factors “Self-esteem tops the list of needs that make people happy” “Self-esteem is the greatest potential impact of PA” For people who view self-esteem as a psychological need “PA -> increased self-esteem -> increased PA” Self-concept o way in which we see/define ourselves Self-esteem o evaluation (positive/negative) or affection (feelings) of one’s self-concept Self-concept model “Base level of hierarchy = one’s behaviour in specific situations” “Self-esteem based on our perceptions of successful and unsuccessful performance over a period of time” “Activities weighed according to their value” Self-esteem Self-esteem Physical Physical Physical Physical competence acceptance competence acceptance Physical self- Physical self- efficacy efficacy Physical 130lbs bench Physical 160lbs bench measure (starting point) measure (challenge) General self- perceptions Specific self- perceptions (Time) “Process of altering self-esteem is initiated with physical measures located at the base of this model” Physical acceptance o extent to which an individual accepts who he is physically Subjective perception of success o if objective indicators of improved fitness are not present o self-concept/self-esteem might improve if one feels that physical competence has improved “Subjective VS objects changes in fitness” “Only subjective perceptions of fitness change influences self-esteem” Measurement of self-esteem o PSPP  five subscales ˃ 1) sports competence ˃ 2) physical condition ˃ 3) body attractiveness ˃ 4) physical strength ˃ 5) physical self-worth  pros ˃ valid and reliable  cons ˃ long questions ˃ complex response format − choose what statement is most representative of you and to what extent ˃ not user friendly o PSDQ  pros ˃ more comprehensive than PSPP ˃ BOTH physical self-concept and self-esteem ˃ simple response format  cons ˃ long list of questions Selective research of exercise and self-esteem o studies  special population that h
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