Kinesiology 1080A/B Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Myocyte, Motor Imagery, Phantom Limb

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Kinesiology Test #1 Notes
Topic #1: Psycho-Motor Learning
Plasticity: the ability to learn and acquire new skills; laying down new neural connections
Extrafusal muscle fibres: power-producing muscle fibres; adduct, abduct, stand, or flex; muscles run in
parallel dimensions (different than cardiac or smooth muscle)
Intrafusal muscle fibres: designed to detect stretch; tells central nervous system where you limb is
relative to your body
*Motor learning: a set of internal processes associate with practice or experiences leading to a relatively
permanent gain in performance capability; relatively permanent change
Performance effect- learn a new skill and forget it after a day
Learning effect- remembered new skill after a day
*Motor control: an area of study dealing with the understanding of the neural, physical, and behavioural
aspects of movement; how the brain develops a motor program which is then sent to the extrafusal
muscles
Mother Disciplines:
1. Psychology: starts in 50s/60s with Shiffron (who dealt with how we learn and store info); he
came up with the term: short-term memory system; contributes to our learning of new
information
a. The brain as a computer: the serial nature of information processing; serial and discrete
fashion; 1st info has to be completely processed before the 2nd could be processed
i. Semantic information: knowledge based info
b. Memory for different tasks: motor tasks versus cognitive tasks- movement learning vs
semantic learning; supported by distinct structures in the central nervous system
2. Engineering: human info processing
a. Arthur Melton- pilots can be selected based on specific individual abilities; developed
simple tasks to identify fighter pilots for the WWII
b. Paul Fitts- wondered why a high percentage of pilots were crashing their planes as they
were about to land; first person who considered how people process info, because it
influences our interactions with machines and computers
i. He found there was incompatible special organization and recognition of
switches/lights in the cockpit
ii. He was the forefather of the field of ergonomics
3. Neuroscience:
a. Reciprocal innervation (or inhibition): occurred in the late 19th century; first understood
by C.S. Sherrington who was interested in function of the neural system and how it
relates to movement (all skilled movement)
i. Suppresses activity of an antagonist muscles when agonist active- contraction is
when the agonist does not occur (agonist- causes action; antagonist- blocks
action)
ii. Explains phenomenon such as walking and reaching
iii. Final common path at the spinal cord produce muscle contraction
4. Physical education: Franklin M. Henry was the first to study gross body movement
a. Examined whole body movements and developed experimental approaches to
understand how we ‘learn’ to produce complex movements
Topic #2: The Nervous System
The Central Nervous System: comprised of brain and spinal cord
The Peripheral Nervous System: specifically looking at the semantic division; Intrafusal muscles
and how information is conveyed to the semantic division
The hierarchy: the cerebral cortex is the ‘big boss’ and it tells everyone else what to do and
when to do it
o The thalamus, basal ganglia, pons and cerebellum are second in command, the
brainstem comes next, and lastly the spinal cord is a ‘slave’ system to all the above (final
common pathway)
Luigi Galvani (1737-1798): ‘animal electricity’; how muscles contract; he hooked a frog up to a
lightning rod; the ability for muscles to move is bioelectric
Neurons: building block of CNS; what happens to neuron as function of learning; it has a speed of 90
meters per second as a result of heavily myelinated axon
Motor unit: a single alpha motor neuron and all muscle fibres it innervates; alpha motor neuron is an
extrafusal muscle fibre (allowed limb to move)
Alpha motor neuron disease: lower motor neuron disease; upper motor neuron disease caused
damage to neurons in cerebral cortex
Speed of Nerve Conduction: Helmhotz (1850s): used isolated muscle and motor nerves of a frog;
measured time between electrical stimulation and muscle contraction
He measured reaction time in response to electrical stimulus to two points; nerve conduction
velocity was very fast (35-60m/s); that speed is about 1/10 the speed of sound