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Kinesiology 1080A/B- Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 67 pages long!)


Department
Kinesiology
Course Code
Kinesiology 1080A/B
Professor
Matthew Heath
Study Guide
Final

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Western
Kinesiology 1080A/B
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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Mechanism & Injury Arising from Concussion
Result of a blow to the head
o Rotational acceleration of head
Space between cortex and skull
o Allows for impact of brain against rough bone in cranial cavity
o Causes injury to cortex
Injury is spread across brain
Has large impact on front and temporal lobes
Concussed individuals have problem with executive function through frontal
lobe
May have depression or anxiety which is conveyed by frontal lobe
Temporal lobe gets damaged in concussion (we know this because they have
difficulty in memory)
o Contre-coup can cause occipital or parietal to be impaired as well
CDC (Centres for Disease Control)
o Simple: mild hit to head, do not lose consciousness, may resolve in
one or two weeks
o Complex: sometimes results in lost of consciousness;
symptoms/deficits may persist over many many weeks
Serial Recall Test: read list (dog, cat, chair), wait a minute and have them
recall words, multiple concussed athletes may not be able to say any of them
whereas normal would be able to remember 15-16
Woman more prone that men
CTE
Anne McKee: pathologist interested in CTE
Has program associated with NFL that takes athletes brain post mortem
NFL player brain has much more atrophy than person same age
Atrophy: decreased in size
CTE ONLY DIAGNOSED AFTER DEATH
Cumulative sub-concussive impacts may develop CTE
CTE confirmed in 25 year old football player!!
Cerebrospinal Fluid in ventricles much different than normal brain
CTE thought to develop from tau protein that creates plaques occurs in small
blood vessels in sulsi of brain (where brain dips down)
o CTE thought to develop in the folds of the brain
Plaques and tangles are completely distinct from that associated with other
forms of dimentia (only in people with contact sports)
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ERP
Electrodes measure currents in the brain which determine when and how
effectively the brain is processing information
Used to evaluate concussion because it tells whether they have recovered
Equivalent neuropsychological test profiles of non-concussed, concussed,
and multiple concussed athletes
Potentials:
o N2pc: related to focusing of visuospatial attention
Focusing attention on something very specific
No difference in N2pc in non-concussed, concussed, and
multiple concussed athletes
Means that these individuals don’t show any significant neural
properties that are different in regards to paying attention
o P300: measure of stimulus processing speed
Suppressed P300 activity in multiple concussed athletes
The long-term effect of a concussion provides a framework to pinpoint the
cognitive system impaired in multiple concussion
You can see long term effects of concussion using ERP
Long term concussion consequences in executive function
Recovery is very complex
Paper/pencil tests not efficient enough
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