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Kinesiology 1080A/B Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Stroke, Superior Colliculus, Dementia


Department
Kinesiology
Course Code
Kinesiology 1080A/B
Professor
Matthew Heath
Study Guide
Midterm

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KINESIOLOGY 1080
Neuroscience
Dimitra Lerikos
ABSTRACT
Dr. Matthew Heath – Test #1 – Western University Canada

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KIN 1080
Test #1
Summary – Key Points
January 6, 2014
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- Pyscho-motor learning is concerned with structures, control and planning in the
brain.
- We process information by vision, proprioception (muscle stretch and position)
and vestibular sense (placement of head).
- Population of interest: people with lesions to the brain
- Parkinson’s disease can be treated by drugs such as Levodopa (which effects
tend to become decreased over time due to desensitization) and surgery treatments such
as Pallidotomy (creating lesions of the brain by hot probes)
- The key feature of motor learning is that it is a relatively permanent gain in
performance capability. Motor control is focused on the neural, physical and behavioural
aspects of movement. Motor performance gain differs from motor learning because it is
not permanent.
January 8, 2014
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KIN 1080
Test #1
Summary – Key Points
- Our body’s force producing muscles are extrafusal muscles, which are arranged
in parallel and are innervated by alpha motor neurons.
- There are four mother disciplines that combine to create motor learning/ control
– these include psychology, engineering, neuroscience and physical education.
- In psychology, we view the brain as a computer that organizes and processes
information serially, and has memory for different tasks such as explicit memories
(formed and stored in the frontal lobe) and implicit motor memories (cerebellum).
- In engineering, Melton believed pilots could be selected for specific desirable
abilities; however, this gave way to the discovery that our ability to perform highly
cognitive tasks relies on the specificity of practice (anyone can be good if properly
trained and devoted to practice). Paul Fitts examined the faults of fighter plane’s cockpit
set-ups and altered the layout to be more efficient for pilots to use. He contends that how
we process information influences our interactions with machines and computers, which
gave way to cognitive ergonomics (how we can efficiently work to interact with our
environment).
- In neuroscience, reciprocal inhibition suppresses activity of an antagonist
muscle when agonist is active, which explains phenomena such as walking. Since this
function is at the spinal cord, it is considered basic. Co-contraction locks in muscles,
Morrow reflex is also known as the startle reflex and unilateral means only occurring on
one side.
- In physical education, Henry examined whole body movements and was
concerned with how we learn them. He was interested in specific functions and body
movements.
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